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Work abroad guide

Want to live and work in Europe or North America? Read this guide to learn how to move to Europe or North America.

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General

  1. What is the economic situation of Europe and North America
    1. The economies of Europe and North America are consistently growing but face a serious shortage of qualified workers.
  2. Why are Europe and North America in need of immigrants?
    1. Europe and North America are facing a demographic shift, with decreasing birth rates but at the same time good economies with a consistent or growing need for qualified employees.
  3. Why should people migrate to Europe or North America?
    1. Immigrants can get a high-paying job with excellent living standards, including high-quality health care and a good education system.
  4. How do candidates select a country to go to?
    1. Candidates read about the culture and the people of different countries and understand the language requirements for each country in their field of work.
  5. What is the general approach to migrating to another country?
    1. Intrenion provides a sophisticated process with the required steps to find a job abroad.
  6. What are the chances that candidates are able to migrate to Europe or North America?
    1. The chances to migrate to Europe or North America are good for highly skilled people who are flexible about where they go, and bad for people lacking the right skills who have a single destination city.
  7. How many people migrate per year?
    1. Statistics say that yearly 3% of the world population migrate to another country, and 15% of the world population are willing to migrate to another country.
  8. Why don't more people migrate?
    1. Intrenion sees the reason for the still-undeveloped migration situation as a lack of knowledge about how to go (migrants) and how to hire (employers).
  9. What are the advantages of international migration?
    1. International migration optimizes a number of basic economic equations best described in the book van der Vossen & Brennan: "In Defense of Openness: Why Global Freedom Is the Humane Solution to Global Poverty"
  10. What are the disadvantages of international migration?
    1. A future challenge could be a brain drain from developing countries, meaning that they aren't able to build their own strong economies.

Europe and North America

  1. What are the advantages of migrating to Europe or North America?
    1. Europe and North America provide a good infrastructure for life and business, with excellent education and health care systems.
  2. What are the disadvantages of migrating to Europe or North America?
    1. Migrants leave some of their family and settle into a new environment, which can be far away.
  3. What are the living standards in Europe and North America?
    1. The living standards in Europe and North America are excellent, with good wages, excellent social security systems, and a positive civil and personal rights situation.
  4. What are the language requirements in Europe?
    1. In English-speaking countries, all migrants must speak only English to a proficient level. In countries with another primary language, the language requirements depend on the profession, city, and employer.
  5. How do I select a city to go to?
    1. Europe and North America offer a tremendous number of cities with high living standards, which migrants can choose from depending on their personal preferences.
  6. What are the relevant cities for foreigners in continental Europe?
    1. Continental Europe, with many countries with primary languages other than English, offers a number of cities where people don't necessarily need to speak the local language to live and work there.
  7. What are the relevant countries to migrate to?
    1. The relevant countries to migrate to are the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Ireland with English as the primary language. The Netherlands, the Nordics (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), Germany, Switzerland, France, and Spain are countries with cities where English-only speakers can live and work easily.
  8. What countries aren't a good idea to migrate to?
    1. Southern and Eastern Europe have neither the economic necessity nor the cultural environment to migrate to, but they are wonderful countries to visit.

The future of Europe and North America

  1. What is the future of Europe and North America?
    1. Despite public opinion, Europe and North America have a good outlook for the next 50 years in comparison with the rest of the world.
  2. Why are there doubts about the future of Europe and North America?
    1. All doubts about the future of Europe and North America must be considered in relation to the challenges that countries in other parts of the world face. This allows us to look at the situation in a new light.
  3. What should candidates look for when migrating to Europe or North America?
    1. Migrants need not only a job but also an environment where they can live well and raise a family.
  4. When is migrating to Europe or North America not a good idea?
    1. Migrants without a significant level of hard and soft skills (and therefore the possibility of employment) aren't needed by any country or region in the world.
  5. What is the economical growth of Europe and North America?
    1. Europe and North America are growing consistently on a relatively small scale, which results in sufficient absolute numbers because of their already high development status.
  6. What about xenophobia in Europe and North America?
    1. Xenophobia is a societal challenge in Europe and North America, like in any other region in the world.
  7. When will European and North American economies recover from Covid-19?
    1. The short-term recovery from Covid-19 will be complete at the end of 2022, but the economic recovery will take several years.

Relevant countries

  1. What is the future of the United States?
    1. The United States has an excellent economic outlook for the foreseeable future, with a strong economy, a stable political system, and a diverse and growing population.
  2. What is the future of Canada?
    1. Canada has a very good economic outlook with a liberal society, a focus on qualified immigration, and a strong economy closely aligned to the United States.
  3. What is the future of the United Kingdom?
    1. The United Kingdom has a good outlook in London and different outlooks in other parts of the country, with a challenged economy and the need to find a new position in the world since it left the European Union.
  4. What is the future of Ireland?
    1. Ireland has a good economic outlook and will remain a hotspot for tech talent for international tech companies in Dublin.
  5. What is the future of the Netherlands?
    1. The Netherlands has an excellent outlook with a strong economy, a liberal society, and a stable political system.
  6. What is the future of the Nordics?
    1. The Nordics have an excellent outlook with a strong economy, a liberal society, and a stable political system.
  7. What is the future of Germany?
    1. Germany has a positive outlook with a currently modernizing economy, a relatively liberal society, and a stable political system.
  8. What is the future of Switzerland?
    1. Switzerland has an excellent outlook with a strong economy, a halfway liberal society, and one of the most stable political systems in the world.
  9. What is the future of France?
    1. France has a positive outlook with a currently modernizing economy, a relatively liberal society, and a stable political system.
  10. What is the future of Spain?
    1. Spain has a mixed outlook with a stable political system, a still-developing economy, and big demographic challenges ahead.

Quality of life

  1. What is the quality of life in Europe and North America?
    1. The quality of life in Europe and North America is high in comparison to other regions of the world, and hard data suggests that it is increasing further.
  2. How do candidates compare the quality of life between different countries and cities?
    1. Future migrants determine their quality of life priorities and rank countries and cities according to these priorities.
  3. How do European and North American social security systems work?
    1. European and North American countries have similar social security systems which are all partly private, partly government organized.
  4. How do European and North American education systems work?
    1. Europe and North America have education systems that are unbeaten in the worldwide comparison, and in Europe education is often accessible for very low costs.
  5. What is the level of living costs in Europe and North America?
    1. Living costs differ depending on the country and city.
  6. What is the level of housing costs in Europe and North America?
    1. Housing costs differ depending on the country and city.
  7. What is the level of health costs in Europe and North America?
    1. Health costs differ from country to country.
  8. How do candidates decide on a country/city?
    1. Future migrants don't decide on a country upfront. Instead, they decide on their priorities to determine where they want to go. This makes the job search process more flexible and reduces the time to migrate.

Working conditions

  1. What are the overall working conditions in Europe and North America?
    1. The overall working conditions in Europe and North America are good to excellent, depending on the country.
  2. What are the working conditions in Europe?
    1. The working conditions in Europe are generally excellent, with several countries leading globally with the highest working standards.
  3. What are the working conditions in North America?
    1. The working conditions in North America are good, but can significantly vary by country, state, and employer.
  4. What are the labor rights in Europe and North America?
    1. Europe and North America have developed labor rights that protect employees against exploitation.
  5. How do I defend my labor rights in Europe and North America?
    1. In Europe and North America, many organizations offer free or cost-efficient legal expertise for labor rights cases.
  6. What employment contract can candidates expect?
    1. Most employers sponsoring visas offer good conditions with non-limited, well-paid employment contracts.
  7. What employment contracts are not allowed to close with immigrants?
    1. Many countries restrict sponsoring visas for temporary work employment contracts. This is to avoid the exploitation of immigrants and protect the existing labor markets from too much competition through too many immigrants with low wages.
  8. How many paid vacation days can I expect in Europe and North America?
    1. Employees can expect 20-30 paid vacation days per calendar year in Europe and 5-15 paid vacation days in North America.
  9. What can I do while on vacation?
    1. Employees are free to travel and leave the country while on paid vacation.

Business culture

  1. What about European and North American business culture(s)?
    1. Countries, regions, cities, and employers in Europe and North America have a broad variety of business cultures but share the same fundamental values of freedom, prosperity, and individual worker rights.
  2. What are the specifics of working in Europe and North America?
    1. Companies in Europe and North America value individual worker rights and participatory decision-making more than companies in other regions in the world.
  3. How do candidates learn to work in Europe or North America?
    1. Intrenion recommends the books Erin Meyer: "The Culture Map" and Richard D Lewis: "When Cultures Collide" to understand the cultural differences in work cultures.
  4. How do candidates learn to work in European and North American companies?
    1. To learn about European and North American work cultures before settling in one of them is best achieved by reading books about international work culture and working for companies that originated in Europe or North America.
  5. When should candidates start researching a company's work culture?
    1. Candidates should research a company's work culture before the first interview.
  6. How do candidates research a company's work culture?
    1. Candidates research a company's work culture through the website Glassdoor.
  7. What is the trust level of employer online reviews?
    1. Candidates focus on the critics to get a better understanding of the negative parts of a company's culture, at the same time putting these comments in relation to the number of positive remarks.
  8. How do candidates contact employees at a specific company before application?
    1. Candidates can contact employees of a company via LinkedIn to better understand the company's work culture in personal conversation.
  9. How do candidates adapt to their new employer's work culture?
    1. New employees focus on doing their daily tasks and learning about the processes and culture, instead of making recommendations for improvements at the beginning.

Employment-based migration

  1. What is employment-based migration?
    1. Employment-based migration describes immigration to another country after signing an employment contract, with a visa-sponsoring employer in place before starting the immigration & relocation process.
  2. How does employment-based migration work?
    1. An employer hires a new employee in another country, sponsors the visa, and supports the new employee with the governmental procedures.
  3. Why is employment-based migration so attractive?
    1. Employment-based migration ensures that candidates have a job and a source of income before migrating to another country.
  4. What can candidates do if they can't find a job?
    1. People who can't find a job should honestly assess and compare their knowledge and skills to other people in their profession and, in the case that they are underperforming, upskill themselves or change their profession if migrating to another country is a high priority in their life.
  5. How do candidates find an employer?
    1. Candidates find employers to apply to through the usual job boards and personal research, to find out which employers sponsor visas for new employees.
  6. What qualifications do employers want to see?
    1. Employers, especially in Europe and North America, are often more concerned with cultural fit than having the correct hard knowledge and skills.
  7. What experience do employers want to see?
    1. Most larger employers employ new hires with a number of experience levels but hesitate to sponsor visas for candidates with less than five years of work experience.
  8. Who drives the immigration & relocation process?
    1. Usually, the employer hires an immigration & relocation service provider to guide the employer and the employee through the immigration & relocation process.
  9. Who pays for the immigration & relocation process?
    1. In most cases, the employer pays for the immigration process and partially takes on the relocation fees.

Self-petition migration

  1. What is self-petition migration?
    1. With a migration based on self-petition, candidates don't need a visa-sponsoring employer with a signed employment contract to conduct the immigration process.
  2. What countries offer a self-migration immigration track?
    1. Canada is well known for its points-based immigration system, which makes immigrants independent from visa-sponsoring employers and therefore frees the employee from sticking with an employer.
  3. How can candidates migrate without a job?
    1. With a visa self-petition, candidates immigrate and relocate without a job and sign an employment contract after applying for a visa or starting to work as a freelancer after relocation.
  4. What are the advantages of migrating without a job?
    1. The advantage of migrating without a job is the flexibility for the migrant and the reduced bureaucracy for the employer.
  5. What are the disadvantages of migrating without a job?
    1. The challenge in migrating without a job lies in the insecurity of finding a job before running out of savings.
  6. Where do candidates get support before self-applying for a visa?
    1. Intrenion provides general information about a possible self-petition visa application and can recommend immigration & relocation service providers that guide candidates through the process.
  7. Who drives the immigration & relocation process in case of self-petition?
    1. In case of a self-petition, the individual drives the visa process with or without an immigration & relocation service provider, which they would pay for themselves.

German self-employment visa

  1. What is the German self-employment visa?
    1. The German self-employment visa gives candidates with the right educational background the option to self-apply for a visa to work as a freelancer in Germany.
  2. How does the German self-employment visa help candidates?
    1. With the German self-employment visa, candidates aren't bound to a fixed employment contract and can freely find work by themselves instead.
  3. What is the process to obtain the German self-employment visa?
    1. The German self-employment visa has a similar application process to any other visa category in Germany, with the exception that no employer is involved in the process.
  4. Who sponsors the self-employment visa?
    1. The future self-employed freelancers sponsor their visa completely alone.
  5. How do candidates with a German self-employment visa find a job?
    1. Freelancers in Germany can search for freelance engagements on a high number of freelance job platforms.
  6. What are the expected costs for the German self-employment visa?
    1. The application costs are ~200 EUR and, if needed, the immigration & relocation service provider charges 500-1500 EUR per case.
  7. How do candidates work as an employee with a standard employment contract after migrating to Germany with a self-employment visa?
    1. People who entered the country with a self-employment visa aren't allowed to work through a standard employment contract, but they can change their visa status with the authorities.
  8. What is the self-employment situation in Covid-19 times?
    1. Currently, all self-employment visa applications are suspended. New applications won't be processed until the Covid-19 situation is under control globally.

German job-seeker visa

  1. What is the German job-seeker visa?
    1. With the German job-seeker visa, candidates are allowed to enter Germany for up to six months to apply for jobs, conduct job interviews, and sign an employment contract with an employer.
  2. How does the German job-seeker visa help candidates migrating?
    1. The German job-seeker visa simplifies the process for the employer because of a reduction of paperwork while applying for the visa, which is reduced to a small number of signatures after signing the employment contract.
  3. What is the process to obtain the German job-seeker visa?
    1. The process to obtain a job-seeker visa is similar to any other visa, but without the interaction of the employer.
  4. Who sponsors the job-seeker visa?
    1. The visa applicants sponsor their visas completely alone.
  5. How do candidates with a German job-seeker visa find a job?
    1. The application process with a job-seeker visa is similar to searching for work remotely, with the difference that job interviews can be done on-site. This makes the situation more comfortable for most employers.
  6. How do candidates with a German job-seeker visa get support with finding a job?
    1. Candidates use the same job platforms to find a job as candidates following the standard visa process.
  7. How do candidates with a German job-seeker visa find accommodation while searching for a job?
    1. Candidates use specific websites for short-term accommodation while searching for a job in Germany.
  8. What is the process for the employer in the interview phase?
    1. The candidate informs the employer that they temporarily immigrated with a job-seeker visa and that the employer will have to sign some documents after the employment contract has been signed by both parties.
  9. What is the process for the employer after the employment contract is closed?
    1. The employer signs a couple of documents confirming that the candidate is working for them.
  10. What are the expected costs for the German job-seeker visa?
    1. The costs are similar to a standard visa application ~200 EUR.

Industries

  1. What industries are in demand of people in Europe and North America?
    1. In Europe and North America, industries developing "high-tech" products are in high demand of people.
  2. What industries in Europe require only English skills?
    1. Hardware and software companies publishing job ads in English are usually not in need of local language skills for these roles.
  3. What industries require local language skills?
    1. All professions working with local laws, the tourism industry, and all "old-school" companies that have existed for 30 years or more usually require local language skills.
  4. How do candidates create a personal positioning in an industry?
    1. Besides work experience in a specific industry, a website with content articles about the specific challenges of this industry can help to make an impression on potential employers.
  5. How do candidates gain work experience in an industry?
    1. The best approach is to focus on a specific industry and find a job within it.
  6. What is the value of relevant industry-specific certificates?
    1. Industry-specific certificates, as well as industry organization memberships, aren't very relevant for employers.
  7. What are the vocational education options for specific industries in Germany?
    1. Austria, Germany, and Switzerland offer a highly sophisticated vocational education system in all industries. However, the vocational students must speak German.

Salary

  1. What salary level can I expect in Europe and North America?
    1. The salary levels in Europe and North America vary depending on the country, region, city, and employer and can be best researched on Glassdoor.
  2. What do I have to take into account when comparing salaries/wages?
    1. The living standards and especially the housing prices are important to take into consideration when comparing wages in different countries, regions, cities, and companies.
  3. How are salaries structured in Europe and North America?
    1. Employers provide salary information as the gross salary, from which the government automatically deducts taxes and social security contributions.
  4. What legal protection do I have to receive my salary?
    1. Countries in Europe and North America provide strong legal systems to protect workers from exploitation, incl. non-payment of salaries.
  5. What can I do with my salary?
    1. Employees are free to spend their money on whatever they want.
  6. How do I send money to my family in my home country?
    1. A growing number of companies offer cost-efficient solutions to send money abroad fast.
  7. What are the options to invest my money?
    1. All countries in Europe and North America have a number of banks and online brokers that provide cost-efficient solutions to invest money in a high number of security classes.
  8. When is the salary usually paid?
    1. The salary is usually paid at the beginning or end of each month.

International recruitment

  1. What is the process of applying for a job abroad?
    1. The international recruitment/hiring process is similar to the traditional process, with the immigration & relocation process following after signing the employment contract.
  2. Which employers are looking for international talent?
    1. Companies employing tech talent are particularly in demand of international talent and are sponsoring visas.
  3. Which employers aren't looking for international talent?
    1. Local companies, mid-market businesses, and companies in need of local language skills aren't internationally recruiting and don't sponsor visas.
  4. Which job roles are worth an international recruitment process?
    1. All tech roles, all nursing roles, some project, process, and product management roles, and some online marketing roles are worth it for companies searching for international candidates.
  5. What job seniorities are worth an international recruitment process?
    1. Usually, companies don't recruit internationally for roles with less than five years of work experience because enough domestic applicants apply for these jobs.
  6. How long until an international candidate finds a job abroad?
    1. The time needed to find a job can be between three months and several years.
  7. How long until an international candidate is hired?
    1. The visa processing time varies depending on the country, the region, and the visa category and takes between three months and one year.
  8. What are the costs for the candidate to find a job abroad?
    1. Candidates should expect to pay several thousand dollars/euros for applications, documents, flights, and accommodation before getting their first paycheck from the employer.
  9. What are the costs for an employer to find an international candidate?
    1. The costs are similar to finding and hiring a local employee in many European countries, and significantly higher in North American countries because of more complicated visa processes.
  10. What are the cognitive biases of (not) searching for international talent?
    1. Many companies anticipate a higher workload for the visa process and prefer to wait for an employee who is already in the country (not necessarily a citizen of the country) instead of supporting the immigration & relocation process, which costs time for the HR department and the hiring manager.
  11. How do candidates convince the recruiter to hire internationally?
    1. Candidates convince companies with excellent resumes, well-prepared job interviews, and something special that makes them extraordinarily interesting in comparison to the high competition of many other candidates.

Assess

Qualification

  1. What qualification do candidates need to find a job in Europe or North America?
    1. People aiming to migrate to Europe or North America need a profession in high demand, social skills to collaborate with co-workers, and language skills for professional use.
  2. How do candidates show their ability to get the job done?
    1. Proof of knowledge, skills, and experience is more important than formal qualifications.
  3. How can candidates show their practical qualifications independently from academic/vocational degrees?
    1. Past work experience together with "creations" (e.g., text, software, designs) show the practical qualification independently from work experience.
  4. What is the academic/vocational recognition process?
    1. Most countries need a recognition of the education degree for immigration, but also provide options to immigrate without the correct degree (or even without a degree at all).
  5. How do candidates check their qualification level?
    1. Candidates should compare their qualification level with the job requirements before starting to apply, to ensure job applications abroad aren't a wasted effort.
  6. How do candidates prove their qualification level?
    1. Candidates show through skill tests, work experience, and individual creations that they have the right qualification level.
  7. How do candidates benchmark their qualification level?
    1. Candidates use the skill ranking and benchmark features built into the skills test.
  8. How do candidates find out that qualification improvement is necessary?
    1. Candidates ensure that they are part of a specific cohort of the best candidates.
  9. What qualification level is necessary for specific jobs?
    1. Different jobs with various employers require different qualification levels.
  10. How do candidates improve their qualification level?
    1. Candidates use free and paid online learning services to learn theoretical and practical knowledge and skills, and use learning communities to practice their new skills.

Academic qualification

  1. What is the necessary academic qualification?
    1. Only a number of professions (e.g., accountants, lawyers, physicians) need a distinct academic qualification. All other professions require a specific skill level but no degree.
  2. What academic professions are not so in demand?
    1. People should avoid all professions with a lower number of required professionals than new graduates per year (e.g., artists, musicians, biologists).
  3. How do candidates show their expertise in a different field than their academic degree?
    1. Candidates can prove their ability to get the job done without a corresponding higher education degree through experience and creations.
  4. How do different academic institutions vary in the eyes of employers?
    1. Most employers are more interested in the candidate's capability to get the job done than in premium higher education institutions.
  5. How do academic institutions and degrees differ in visa application?
    1. Some countries differentiate between high-quality and low-quality academic institutions and degrees in their visa processes.
  6. What translations are necessary for the job application process?
    1. Employers require the academic degree documents (including the transcript of records) in English as part of the job application process.
  7. What translations are necessary for the visa application process?
    1. Governmental organizations need the higher education degree documents (including the transcript of records) in English and/or a notarized transcription into the local language for the visa application process.

Vocational qualification

  1. What is vocational education?
    1. Wikipedia describes the foundations of vocational education.
  2. Are vocational qualifications in demand?
    1. Vocational education is a popular alternative to higher education and is in demand in all countries in Europe in North America.
  3. How are candidates' vocational qualifications recognized?
    1. The recognition of vocational education by employers and/or governmental organizations differs from country to country.
  4. How can candidates check if their vocational qualification is recognized?
    1. Some countries provide long tables and/or an individual recognition process to check relatively early in the job application and/or visa process whether a vocational education degree is recognized, or what kind of upskilling is necessary to get the vocational education degree recognized.
  5. What can candidates do if their vocational qualification isn't recognized?
    1. Some countries provide upskilling tracks for people with some level of vocational education to match the corresponding national education degree.
  6. How can candidates extend their vocational education to match the level of the destination country?
    1. For some candidates, it can be almost impossible to match the required vocational education level before migrating to the target destination and following the upskilling track there.
  7. Where can candidates find more information about the recognition of vocational education degrees?
    1. Countries with a sophisticated vocational education system (i.e., Austria, Germany, Switzerland) provide information on their government websites.
  8. How can candidates gain an additional vocational education?
    1. The alternative to upskilling is starting a vocational education from scratch, which is possible for everyone matching the language requirements (often B1 or B2 in the relevant language).
  9. Which professions need an official vocational degree?
    1. Some professions (e.g., many crafts) need an accomplished in-country or recognized foreign vocational education degree.
  10. Which professions are fine without a formal degree?
    1. Many professions (e.g., trades, software engineering, digital & marketing professionals) don't require any formal degree to work in the professional area.

Different professional fields and education degrees

  1. How do candidates find a job in a different field than their education degree?
    1. Candidates focus on their knowledge, skills, and work experience in their professional field instead of their academic degrees.
  2. How do candidates explain their knowledge and skills with differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. Candidates prove their knowledge and skills with former employments, their own creations, and references confirming their experience.
  3. How does the visa process work with differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. In the case of employment-based immigration, the immigration & relocation service provider supports the employer and the candidate with the right approach for immigration.
  4. Is there an option to obtain a second degree to simplify the migration process, in the case of differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. In most cases, a second degree in the field of the current profession doesn't help prospective migrants with their migration because compared to actual knowledge, skills, and work experience educational degrees don't have a high relevance anymore.
  5. What is the country selection approach in the case of differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. Prospective migrants research and compare the requirements for immigration with their combination of professional field and education degree in detail before starting the education process.
  6. How do employers support cases of differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. Most employers focus on actual knowledge, skills, and experience and also support their employees in gaining additional and more advanced degrees through various programs (e.g., part-time work to continue studies).
  7. How does an immigration & relocation service provider support differing professional fields and education degrees?
    1. The immigration & relocation service provider leads the optimal way for immigration based on the current degree situation of the prospective migrant.
  8. How can a career change work with a migration?
    1. Intrenion does not recommend combining a change of profession at the same time as moving to another country.

Migration without an education degree

  1. How can candidates migrate to Europe or North America without a formal education degree?
    1. Some countries (e.g., Germany) provide the opportunity to immigrate with neither a formal education degree nor local language skills if the migrant has found a job in a high-demand professional area (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineering).
  2. What is the primary selling point of the candidate without an education degree?
    1. Without a formal education degree, candidates sell themselves on their knowledge, skills, and work experience and highlight their publicly available creations (e.g., text, software, designs on their website).
  3. How does the visa process work in the case of no education degree?
    1. The immigration & relocation service providers finds a way for the employer and employee to successfully conduct the immigration process.
  4. What about the option to obtain an education degree to simplify the migration process?
    1. An education degree isn't necessary if the prospective migrant is flexible with their target destination country.
  5. Which professions don't require an education degree?
    1. Candidates don't need a degree for all professions for which the law doesn't require a specific education degree, and which are in high demand (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineering).
  6. How does an employer support this case?
    1. The employer asks the immigration & relocation service provider for a pre-check of the case of a specific candidate before signing the employment contract.
  7. How does an immigration & relocation service provider support this case?
    1. The immigration & relocation service provider conducts a pre-check of the specific situation before the employer and the candidate sign an employment contract.
  8. Which countries can I migrate to without an education degree?
    1. Germany is one country that doesn't require a formal degree if the employer shows the authorities that the prospective migrant is in need, brings the capability to get the job done, and pays a competitive salary.

Language skills

  1. What language skill level do candidates need to migrate to Europe?
    1. The number of employers in need of employees with English skills and no local language skills is still limited, but it's growing fast.
  2. What language skill level do candidates need to migrate to North America?
    1. In North America, with the exception of the province of Quebec in Canada, nearly all employers require English as their primary working language.
  3. What local language skills do employers require in Europe?
    1. For most roles in Europe that require local language skills, a B1 or B2 level is sufficient to get the job done.
  4. What local language level do the authorities require for a visa?
    1. The local language skill requirements vary from country to country, but more and more countries only require sufficient English skills.
  5. How do candidates find an employer without local language skill needs in Europe?
    1. Candidates screen job portals for job ads written in English, with no indication that the job also requires local language skills.
  6. How do candidates learn the local European language?
    1. All larger cities in Europe offer a number of local language courses for all skill levels. In addition, several online language learning services exist.
  7. What local language level do people need for daily life in Europe?
    1. In most basic situations (e.g., shopping) a language level of A2 is sufficient. In work environments, a language level of B2 is in most companies and job roles sufficient.
  8. How do candidates prove their English skill level?
    1. Various English certificates exist. The most cost-efficient is around 30 EUR per test.

Language skill requirements by country

  1. What are the language requirements in the United States?
    1. In the United States, nearly all employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  2. What are the language requirements in Canada?
    1. In Canada, with the exception of the province of Quebec, nearly all employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  3. What are the language requirements in the United Kingdom?
    1. In the United Kingdom nearly all employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  4. What are the language requirements in Ireland?
    1. In Ireland nearly all employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  5. What are the language requirements in the Netherlands?
    1. In the Netherlands a growing number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  6. What are the language requirements in the Nordics?
    1. In the Nordics a growing number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  7. What are the language requirements in Germany?
    1. In Germany a relatively small but fast-growing number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  8. What are the language requirements in Switzerland?
    1. In Switzerland a growing number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  9. What are the language requirements in France?
    1. In France a small number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.
  10. What are the language requirements in Spain?
    1. In Spain a small number of employers only require English as a spoken and written language.

Upskill

General

  1. Why is upskilling relevant?
    1. Candidates applying for a job (abroad) must bring the skills to get the job done.
  2. What are the chances that candidates have to improve their skills?
    1. Intrenion estimates that around 45% of the general population should improve their professional skills to completely fulfill the requirements of their employer.
  3. How do candidates upskill?
    1. Upskilling comes with gaining knowledge, skills, and practical experience.
  4. How do candidates gain knowledge?
    1. Candidates gain knowledge by reading books, articles, and professional magazines/newspapers.
  5. How do candidates gain skills?
    1. Candidates gain skills by executing their knowledge, creating and/or managing things, and using professional learning & development technology/knowledge tools.
  6. How do candidates gain practical experience?
    1. Candidates gain experience by repeating their execution of skills and improving their decision-making competence.
  7. How do candidates improve their social skills?
    1. Candidates use their knowledge to execute their skills in a group by working with other people.
  8. How do candidates upskill alone?
    1. Candidates find read, execute, and repeat alone.
  9. How do candidates upskill in a group?
    1. Candidates find and meet peers (online or in-person) with whom they read, decide, and execute together.
  10. How do candidates upskill physically?
    1. Candidates meet with peers to collaborate at home, in a higher education institution, at a company, or in another private or public space.
  11. How do candidates upskill virtually (remote)?
    1. Candidates use free or paid virtual collaboration software to work together.
  12. How do candidates find peers to upskill together?
    1. Candidates contact their existing friends or use social media to connect with people.
  13. How does Intrenion support the finding and contacting of new peers?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of people sorted by geography who are interested in working together to upskill and migrate to another country.
  14. How do candidates set up a learning group?
    1. Candidates find peers in Intrenion's member directory and invite them to a learning group around their topic.
  15. What are the risks of finding a job abroad without upskilling?
    1. If a candidate gets a job abroad without the appropriate skills, the chance is high that the employer will terminate the employment contract after some time. The candidate then has the challenge of finding a new job in a relatively short time before running out of money and/or losing the visa/work permit.
  16. What are the alternatives to upskilling?
    1. Candidates apply for jobs with their existing skills.
  17. What are the alternatives to finding a job abroad?
    1. Candidates apply for local jobs that require their existing skill level.
  18. What is the inconvenient truth about upskilling?
    1. Upskilling is an investment that takes time, effort, and money before the candidate earns the benefits of more knowledge, better skills, and gained experience.
  19. Why don't people upskill if they want to find a job abroad?
    1. Employers in Europe and North America expect a distinctive level of knowledge and skills known from mediocre to good higher education institutions, and a workforce that fulfills usual job requirements.
  20. How does Intrenion help people who are not determined to improve their hard and soft skills?
    1. Intrenion isn't able to help people without the determination and persistence to upskill to the right level.

Online courses

  1. What are the relevant online course platforms?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of relevant online course platforms in the corresponding section.
  2. How do candidates assess the quality of an online course platform?
    1. Candidates conduct a couple of test lessons to evaluate the didactic format, the content quality, and the platform usability.
  3. What should candidates look at when selecting an online course?
    1. Candidates set their knowledge, skill, and experience goals and evaluate a course by considering whether these goals would be met.
  4. How do candidates assess the quality of an online course?
    1. Candidates set their own learning goals on what, how, and when they want to upskill and evaluate courses after the first test lessons to determine whether their goals would be met at the end of the course.
  5. How do candidates measure their progress with the online course?
    1. Candidates set their own learning pace based on their experience with other learning situations and measure whether they meet their own goals.
  6. How do candidates measure the progress of their upskilling?
    1. Candidates determine a roadmap and the learning goals at the beginning and continually compare their progress with their learning goals.
  7. How do candidates test their newly gained knowledge and skills?
    1. Candidates conduct independent skill assessments from the online course to measure their knowledge, skills, and execution speed and compare their capabilities with peers in joint creation sessions.

Change of profession

  1. When is a change of profession useful?
    1. Candidates who aren't able to upskill to an employer's desired level should evaluate a career change to a profession with other and/or lower requirements.
  2. How do candidates identify a better profession?
    1. Candidates compare their current profession and look for related professions which better fit their capabilities.
  3. Why is choosing a "lower" profession useful?
    1. People excelling in their profession are highly useful for co-workers and employers, but people underperforming in their profession are an obstacle for others.
  4. How do candidates identify an "easier" profession?
    1. Many professions have a formalized education track with different degree levels. This should be utilized to identify "easier" professions.
  5. How do candidates change their profession?
    1. Candidates learn the fundamentals of the new profession to a useful level, get a junior to mid position and gain work experience.
  6. How do candidates gain work experience in the new profession?
    1. Candidates apply for junior to mid positions to gain work experience quickly and can then gain a more senior position.
  7. How do candidates "upgrade" themselves to the old profession?
    1. Candidates can promote themselves to the former, more advanced, profession by learning, upskilling, and showing their overall capability to get the job done to a higher level.

Position

Job role

  1. Why is the job role important for the application process?
    1. Aligning your professional profile to a common job role makes the job of the recruiter easier and faster.
  2. What job roles are in demand in Europe and North America?
    1. Intrenion provides an overview about the demand of specific roles in Europe and North America.
  3. How do candidates identify their job role?
    1. Candidates read Intrenion's common job requirements and identify a role they fit into best.
  4. How do candidates change their job role after some time in their career?
    1. Candidates can change their job role with a bootcamp, learning everything they need to know to get the job done.
  5. How do candidates narrow down the job role in their resume?
    1. Candidates adapt their resume and cover letter for every job application based on the job ad and its role description.
  6. How do candidates describe their job role?
    1. Candidates mention their professional title (e.g., software engineer) and describe their knowledge, skills, and experience adapted to the job description of the employer.
  7. How do candidates learn a job role?
    1. Candidates learn the basics of the profession in a higher education institution or through a vocational training program.
  8. How do candidates position themselves to get the job done?
    1. In their resume and cover letter, candidates focus on past job outcomes and the ability to get the job done rather than on capabilities and skills.
  9. How do candidates collect work experience in a new job role?
    1. Candidates can join at a junior or mid level and gain work experience. Then they can change their employer and take on a more experienced role based on their collected professional experience and their general work experience.

Job seniority

  1. Why is job seniority important for the application process?
    1. The right job seniority classification (e.g., junior, senior) simplifies the job of the recruiter and matches the candidate with the internal org chart and the pay levels.
  2. Why is job seniority important for the employer?
    1. Most employers match the seniority of candidates and employees to their expertise (although scientifically this is not a useful technique). This is why it's so important for professionals to gain work experience.
  3. What job seniorities are in demand?
    1. Most larger employers are in need of all job seniorities (e.g., junior, mid, senior, manager, principal, executive), but sponsor visas only from a specific level upwards.
  4. How do job seniorities differ in companies?
    1. In small companies, employees take over a broader range of job roles and seniorities. In larger companies, job roles and seniorities are heavily divided.
  5. Why is an increase in job seniority important for the candidate?
    1. The job seniority is directly linked to the pay scale.
  6. How do candidates identify their job seniority?
    1. Candidates follow the classification of their peers and the feedback of recruiters in employers and recruitment agencies.
  7. How do candidates change their job role but keep their job seniority?
    1. Candidates can change their job role to a related one and adapt their resume and cover letter so that their experience matches the requirements of the job ad.
  8. How do candidates increase their job seniority?
    1. Candidates gain experience by getting the job done and following the usual career good practices (e.g., leadership, colleague education) so that their bosses continually promote them to more senior positions with more accountabilities and responsibilities.

Positioning

  1. How do candidates show their unique qualification?
    1. In addition to matching the job requirements, candidates need to show a distinctive additional value to the employer that differentiates them from other candidates.
  2. How do candidates identify a niche for positioning?
    1. Candidates ask themselves what is interesting to companies beside their basic capabilities, and what they can offer that is unique.
  3. How do candidates learn about possible niches?
    1. Candidates continually learn in order to identify a niche for themselves.
  4. How do candidates explain their unique capability?
    1. Candidates use their cover letter or an additional page to describe their unique capability.
  5. What are some relevant topics to show a unique differentiation?
    1. Employers like everything that sorts their organizational chaos, such as management, leadership, and education systems (people, process, technology).
  6. How can candidates structure a unique positioning?
    1. Candidates structure the one-pager of their system/process/methodology in terms of the value it contributes, or they structure their cover letter according to the requirements of the job.
  7. What are some trending topics to show positioning?
    1. For many professional areas a personal website can be helpful in explaining a unique system/process/methodology, even if only recruiters of prospective employers will read it.
  8. How can candidates position themselves as a thought leader?
    1. Candidates can create a website with their unique business system/process/methodology and add an additional page to their job application page (after cover letter and resume).
  9. How do candidates connect with other people around their business system/process/methodology?
    1. Candidates connect with peers they already know and people on LinkedIn to discuss and improve their unique business system/process/methodology.
  10. How do candidates build a community around their business system/process/methodology?
    1. Candidates regularly conduct webinars and web meetings around their business system/process/methodology.
  11. Which employers are interested in positioned candidates?
    1. All employers are interested in making good deals when employing people by hiring candidates who are better than average.
  12. Which employers aren't interested in positioned candidates?
    1. Companies with a small number of candidates (e.g., because of an uncompetitive salary) hire only average candidates.
  13. What are the chances of candidates getting hired without a positioning and a unique value proposition?
    1. Most companies try to hire better-than-average candidates, therefore the chances of candidates getting hired without a differentiation are low.

Content creation

  1. How do candidates create content?
    1. Candidates choose a technology stack for their personal website and start creating.
  2. What content types are useful for positioning?
    1. Business leaders like approaches to manage their organizational chaos, such as a business system/process/methodology.
  3. What content formats are useful for positioning?
    1. Candidates use written text to not only show their writing capability but also get their content indexed by search engines.
  4. What content formats aren't useful for positioning?
    1. Videos are complex to create, aren't indexed by search engines, and business leaders dislike the format because it's impossible to skim through the content.
  5. What content is useful for positioning?
    1. Candidates create content that professionals can use as explanation, help, good practices, templates, or other practical use cases.
  6. What content isn't useful for positioning?
    1. Candidates should avoid creating content that is inefficient or too long, theoretical concepts, or generic explanations.
  7. Where do candidates publish content?
    1. Candidates publish their writing on their own website and on common content platforms like Medium and LinkedIn.
  8. How do candidates share their created content?
    1. Candidates regularly provide updates about content changes and improvements on LinkedIn and other online social networks.
  9. How do candidates invite others to collaborate on content?
    1. Candidates can use collaboration software tools like Notion to work on content together.
  10. How do candidates test created content?
    1. Candidates ask peers to evaluate their content, and particularly its suitability for learning and daily use.
  11. How do candidates create evergreen content?
    1. Candidates create and update content with a structure for learning or usage (e.g., online course, process framework) instead of by date (e.g., news blog articles).
  12. How do candidates update evergreen content?
    1. Candidates improve their content regularly when they see possibilities for optimization, and communicate large updates and reworks broadly through their offline and online social network.
  13. How do candidates ensure a high level of language?
    1. Non-native English speakers find a native speaker through online services like Upwork to correct all texts that are published.

Personal website

  1. Why do candidates need a personal website?
    1. Candidate demonstrate their professional attitude and their shareable content with a personal website.
  2. How do candidates create a personal website?
    1. Candidates use common free and paid online services to create a personal website.
  3. What technical services does Intrenion recommend for a personal website?
    1. Intrenion recommends GoDaddy as a domain registration service, Google Workspace for personal email and collaboration, and Google Sites for the personal website.
  4. How can candidates use their social media profiles in addition to a personal website?
    1. Candidates can publish their content on LinkedIn as articles.
  5. What information is necessary on a personal website?
    1. Candidates check their national requirements for publisher information on public websites.
  6. What amount of content should candidates publish on their website?
    1. Intrenion recommends that candidates publish an end-to-end framework/methodology/process that solves a small but common challenge.
  7. How do candidates promote their website?
    1. Candidates promote their website in their job applications. They can also promote content updates via LinkedIn.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback on their websites?
    1. Candidates invite peers to provide feedback about their website.

Social media

  1. What is the relevance of social media profiles to employers?
    1. Social media profiles aren't especially relevant for employers, but recruiters check them as part of the recruitment process.
  2. What social media profiles should candidates share with a job application?
    1. Candidates share professional social media profiles like LinkedIn and GitHub with their job application, but never personal profiles like Facebook.
  3. How many social media profiles should candidates share?
    1. Candidates share all professional social media profiles that include a significant amount of activity and/or content.
  4. How do candidates share their social media profiles with potential employers?
    1. Candidates share links to their professional social media profiles in their resume.
  5. How do candidates communicate on social media platforms?
    1. Candidates link or publish long-form articles on their personal website and/or other websites and publish short posts.
  6. How do candidates decide which topics to write about on social media?
    1. Candidates share content on social media that has a value for other people, instead of informing the world about the candidate's life.
  7. What topics should candidates avoid on social media?
    1. Candidates communicate on professional social media platforms about professional subjects only, and never about political, religious, or other highly personal topics.
  8. Why are social media platforms overrated?
    1. Professional social media has low real value and much-published content isn't of any professional relevance for the reader.
  9. Why do many professionals move away from professional social media platforms?
    1. Professionals recognize the low value for their daily work and/or professional life and the increasing amount of bullshit bingo content.

Plan

Job market by country

  1. What is the job market situation in the United States?
    1. The United States are in high demand of skilled professionals, but the complex and expensive immigration system discourages employers from sponsoring visas.
  2. What is the job market situation in Canada?
    1. Canada is in high demand of skilled professionals, and the easy-to-understand immigration system encourages employers to sponsor visas and prospective immigrants to self-petition for visas.
  3. What is the job market situation in the United Kingdom?
    1. The United Kingdom is in demand of skilled professionals, but since the UK left the European Union it isn't clear what will happen with the immigration system.
  4. What is the job market situation in Ireland?
    1. Ireland is in demand of professionals for large American technology corporates in Dublin, but the rest of the economy lacks the foundation for the large-scale immigration of professionals.
  5. What is the job market situation in the Netherlands?
    1. The Netherlands, with an English-speaking business culture, is in high demand of skilled professionals and has an easy-to-understand and cost-efficient immigration system.
  6. What is the job market situation in the Nordics?
    1. The Nordics are in demand of skilled professionals, but the business culture is only partly English-speaking.
  7. What is the job market situation in Germany?
    1. Germany is in demand of skilled professionals but the business culture is only English-speaking in limited areas.
  8. What is the job market situation in Switzerland?
    1. Switzerland is in high demand of skilled professionals, with more than half of its corporations using English as an internal business language.
  9. What is the job market situation in France?
    1. France is in demand of skilled professionals who speak French at an advanced level.
  10. What is the job market situation in Spain?
    1. Spain is in low demand of skilled professionals who speak Spanish at a mediocre level.

Migration with spouse

  1. What are the requirements to migrate with a spouse?
    1. Candidates can migrate with their spouse but need either a higher budget or a job for the spouse in the new city.
  2. What is the process to apply for a visa with a spouse?
    1. Candidates include their spouse in the visa process. They will get the same rights as the primary visa applicant.
  3. What are the financial requirements to migrate with a spouse?
    1. Candidates need the budget to fund their family for weeks or months, including many one-time expenses before receiving the first paycheck.
  4. What are the fees for including a spouse in the immigration process?
    1. The fees for the governmental organization and the immigration & relocation service provider are modestly higher when including a spouse in the visa application.
  5. Who covers the fees to include a spouse in the immigration process?
    1. Candidates negotiate the visa sponsorship with the prospective employer in the hiring process.
  6. Does including a spouse extend the time of the immigration process?
    1. Including a spouse in the visa process only extends it if the candidate changes the application after the initial filing.
  7. What is the best process to include a spouse in the immigration process?
    1. The immigration & relocation services provider leads the migration process, including how to include a spouse in the application.
  8. How does a spouse find a job in the new country?
    1. The spouse uses the usual job and talent platforms, just like the primary visa applicant.
  9. How can the spouse quickly find a job?
    1. In many cases, the spouse has more flexibility in finding a job than the primary visa applicant, which opens up the opportunity for the spouse to take on a job beneath their current professional education level.
  10. What is the process to include a fiancé in the immigration process?
    1. Most countries don't support including a fiancé in the visa application process, but some countries provide options for couples to immigrate with the aim to marry in a specific time frame after migration.
  11. What are the alternatives to including a fiancé/spouse in the immigration process?
    1. Primary candidates can migrate first without the spouse and then later file a second visa application (for the full cost) for the spouse.

Migration with children

  1. How do candidates migrate with children?
    1. Candidates plan the schooling approach for their children before applying for a visa.
  2. What are the costs of migrating with children?
    1. The immigration & relocation service provider, housing, and living costs are much higher when migrating with children but can vary significantly between countries.
  3. How does the immigration process work with children?
    1. The immigration & relocation service provider guides candidates through the process, but large parts of the child-related work remain with the candidates and their spouses.
  4. What is the age limit of a dependent?
    1. Every country has its own regulations about the maximum age of dependents for migration, which can be easily researched.
  5. What language skills are required for children?
    1. Migrating with children to countries with a native language is in many cases a challenge because the number of English-speaking schools is limited.
  6. What are the educational challenges if migrating with children?
    1. Parents must find a school for their children that meets the demands of both children and parents.
  7. Who supports the migrant family with child-related challenges?
    1. Immigration & relocation service providers can help with some challenges, but parents must conduct research on their own.
  8. How can a community in the target city support a migrating family?
    1. Families with children can connect to diaspora communities in their target location.
  9. How much money do candidates need to migrate with children?
    1. Candidates migrating with children need a couple of thousand dollars/euro to cover their one-time expenses related to migration and their living costs.
  10. How much money should candidates earn to migrate with children?
    1. Candidates migrating with children should earn two incomes at a professional level, with higher education degrees.
  11. What are the living costs for families in Europe and North America?
    1. The living costs for families vary significantly between countries, states, regions, and cities. Candidates must evaluate and compare them for their individual case.

Design

Resume writing

  1. How do candidates create a professional-looking resume?
    1. Candidates use an online resume generator tool instead of standard office applications to create their resume.
  2. What is the right structure for a resume?
    1. Candidates follow the structure of the resume generator software tool instead of ideating their own independent structure.
  3. Why is a standardized resume important for the job application process?
    1. Recruiters demand a resume following common structure and design patterns to simplify and speed up their daily routine of quickly screening resumes.
  4. What is the necessary content in a resume?
    1. Candidates include their basic personal information, work experience, education history, knowledge and hard skill list, and a brief part of their unique value proposition for the employer.
  5. Which online resume generator software tool does Intrenion recommend?
    1. Intrenion recommends the completely free-of-charge resume tools of Indeed and Resume.com.
  6. How do professional resume services work?
    1. Some professional resume services provide feedback and/or completely write the resume for candidates. This can be useful if candidates are unsure if their resume fits the common requirements.
  7. How do candidates differentiate their resume from other candidates?
    1. Candidates differentiate the content by adding unique value instead of adapting the structure, layout, or design of the resume.
  8. What is the optimal length for resumes?
    1. Candidates limit their resume to one page.
  9. What additional resume documents are helpful?
    1. Candidates can add a page about their unique value proposition (e.g., framework, methodology, process) after the resume.
  10. What isn't relevant in a resume?
    1. Candidates limit personal information to what is relevant to get the job done, without including information like family status or hobbies.

Skill certificates

  1. Why are skill certificates relevant?
    1. Candidates show a basic competence in a specific field. This simplifies the process for the recruiter to assess the candidate on their resume, including their work experience.
  2. What are the available skill certificates?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of skill certificates from which members can choose the relevant ones to complete.
  3. How do candidates obtain skill certificates?
    1. Candidates follow the instructions on the website of the institution providing the skill certificate.
  4. What are the general in-demand skills?
    1. Software, data, and DevOps engineering are the most in-demand skills at the moment.
  5. Who pays for skill certificates?
    1. Candidates usually pay for skill certificates by themselves.
  6. How do candidates learn for skill certificates?
    1. Candidates use the learning resources of the skill test provider, preparation books, preparation courses, and/or online resources.
  7. What can candidates do without skill certificates?
    1. Candidates without skill certificates conduct free and/or paid online tests with certificates to show their competence level to recruiters.
  8. What can candidates do if they consistently fail to obtain skill certificates?
    1. Candidates who consistently fail with skill certificates can think about changing their profession.
  9. What skill certificates are useful?
    1. All skill certificates showing the proficiency of the candidate in relation to skills the employer is in need of are useful.
  10. What skill certificates are useless?
    1. Skill certificates about capabilities employers aren't in need of aren't useful to obtain.
  11. What employers are (not) interested in skill certificates?
    1. Employers value skill certificates to different degrees, depending on their internal regulations and practices.

Language certificates

  1. Why are language certificates relevant?
    1. Language certificates show the language skills of a candidate in a standardized way without the usual biases of interviews.
  2. What are the relevant language certificates?
    1. Many employers don't mind which language certificate the candidate has. They only require one that is somewhat recognized and includes a skill level rating based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
  3. How many language certificates should candidates obtain?
    1. Candidates should obtain a language certificate for every language they've learned except their native language.
  4. How do candidates obtain a language certificate?
    1. Candidates conduct language certificates depending on the approach of the issuing institution.
  5. How does Intrenion provide a language certificate?
    1. Intrenion provides a basic but standardized English language certificate with its assessment add-on.
  6. What general language qualification systems are there?
    1. All language certificate systems match their skill levels with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
  7. What are the minimum requirements for English skills for technical roles?
    1. Technical roles (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineer) should have an English level of B1.
  8. What are the minimum requirements for English skills for managerial roles?
    1. Technical roles (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineer) should have an English level of B2-C1.
  9. What are the minimum requirements for English skills for customer-facing roles?
    1. Technical roles (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineer) should have an English level of B2-C1.
  10. What are the minimum requirements for English skills for writing roles?
    1. Technical roles (e.g., software, data, DevOps engineer) should have an English level of C1-C2.

Search

Job platforms

  1. What are the main career platform operating models?
    1. Career platforms utilize either the job platform or the talent platform operating model.
  2. How do job platforms work?
    1. On job platforms, candidates search and apply for jobs.
  3. How do talent platforms work?
    1. On talent platforms, employers search and contact candidates.
  4. What global job platforms are available?
    1. LinkedIn is the most common global job platform.
  5. What are the relevant career platforms in Europe and North America?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of job and talent platforms in Europe and North America.
  6. What professional areas are suitable to find a job abroad on career platforms?
    1. Professions regularly requiring a higher education degree that are in high demand (e.g., technical roles) are suited to applying on job platforms.
  7. What are professional areas not suitable to find a job abroad on career platforms?
    1. Employers commonly don't use career platforms for professions requiring a vocational education or on-the-job training.
  8. What information should candidates share on talent platforms?
    1. Candidates should add their technologies, frameworks, and other skills to ensure they get found by employers.
  9. How do candidates differentiate themselves on job platforms?
    1. Candidates share their unique value proposition, their website link, and if possible their content articles with their job application.
  10. How do candidates differentiate themselves on talent platforms?
    1. Candidates add their unique value proposition, their website link, and if possible their content articles on talent platforms.
  11. How does the application process work with job platforms?
    1. Candidates apply for listed jobs by sharing their application information on the platform, adding a resume, and/or following the link to the employer's website to upload their personal information.
  12. How do candidates find English-speaking jobs on job platforms?
    1. Candidates search for job role and geography and screen the search results for job ads in English that don't mention requiring local language skills.
  13. How do candidates find employers sponsoring visas on job platforms?
    1. Candidates have only low chances to filter for employers sponsoring visas. They must apply to a high number of employers and wait for their reactions.
  14. What is the timeframe in which a candidate can expect to find a job on a job platform?
    1. (International) candidates (requiring a visa) can expect to search for several months for a job until an employer hires them.

Recruitment agencies

  1. How do recruitment agencies work?
    1. Employers outsource parts of their recruitment and hiring process to recruitment agencies, in many cases paying them per hire.
  2. How do candidates find recruitment agencies abroad?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of relevant recruitment agencies in Europe and North America.
  3. How do candidates know if recruitment agencies are interested in their profile?
    1. Candidates send recruitment agencies their profile and ask for feedback about it, and for the chance to get introductions to employers.
  4. How do recruitment agencies work with their clients?
    1. Recruitment agencies act as classical professional services firms and/or outsourcing service providers, utilizing software and process standardization to execute specific parts of the HR value chain.
  5. What do recruitment agencies charge candidates?
    1. Recruitment agencies normally don't charge anything to candidates. Candidates should avoid working with recruitment agencies that charge them.
  6. What do recruitment agencies charge employers?
    1. Recruitment agencies usually charge employers 15%-25% of the first annual gross salary of the hired employee.
  7. What do recruitment agencies want?
    1. Recruitment agencies want to place capable people who get the job done in an efficient way, without too much manual work per hire.
  8. How do candidates apply with recruitment agencies?
    1. Recruitment agencies usually publish their candidate application process on their website, with an online form to upload personal information including a resume.
  9. How do candidates position themselves in front of recruitment agencies against other candidates?
    1. Candidates position themselves against the competition (other candidates) with a unique value proposition that the recruitment agency can utilize to sell the candidate to employers.
  10. How do recruitment agencies find candidates?
    1. Recruitment agencies use LinkedIn to search for candidates. This is why it's important for candidates to keep their LinkedIn profile updated with the correct details and keywords (e.g., skills, technologies, frameworks).

Job search

  1. What are the necessary documented qualifications before starting the job search?
    1. Candidates should have a cover letter draft, a resume draft, a UVP abstract page draft, and relevant certificates at hand when starting the job search.
  2. How do candidates check their competitive position before starting the job search?
    1. Candidates search on LinkedIn for people with similar job titles at companies they would like to work at.
  3. How does the job search process work?
    1. Candidates search based on job title and geography to find relevant jobs and record them in a sheet document.
  4. How do candidates get an overview of the jobs they have found?
    1. Candidates maintain a sheet with the jobs, the application status, and additional variables to get an overview of their job application process.
  5. Which jobs are worth applying to?
    1. All jobs matching the knowledge, skills, and experience of the candidate are worth an application.
  6. How do candidates find jobs outside of job platforms?
    1. Candidates maintain their LinkedIn profile and offline social network to get in contact with recruiters in search of people.
  7. How do candidates screen jobs for requirements?
    1. Candidates screen and compare each required skill and experience with their own professional profile.
  8. How do candidates compare their qualifications with job requirements?
    1. Candidates ask themselves whether they are capable of getting the job done.
  9. What are the expectations of fulfilling the listed job requirements and work experience?
    1. Employers don't need candidates who fulfill the complete list of requirements. They prefer people who get the job done.

Job search for a spouse

  1. Why is a job for candidate spouses important?
    1. Candidates and their spouses increase their income with a second income to a level that makes life in Europe and North America significantly easier.
  2. How does a couple find a job for the spouse?
    1. After finding a job in a large city with a good job market for one person, the couple begins the job search for the spouse in this city.
  3. What is the challenge of finding a job for candidate spouses?
    1. For most couples, only one of them has a profession that is in high demand in Europe and North America.
  4. What are the alternatives to finding a job for candidate spouses?
    1. Spouses alternatively improve their local language skills and/or focus on upskilling until they are at the right professional level to find a job.
  5. What are the alternatives to finding an appropriate job for candidate's spouse?
    1. A spouse can take on a job below the job and skill level they had in their home country, focusing on the generation of a second income stream instead of developing professionally.
  6. What is the required qualification for a basic job?
    1. In most cities, a high number of basic jobs with low language requirements exist (e.g., delivery job).
  7. What are the advantages of a basic job?
    1. A basic job creates a second income stream, which is very useful in many European and North American cities with their high living costs.
  8. What are the disadvantages of a basic job?
    1. A basic job doesn't provide any career and development track. The spouse should continue upskilling and applying for other jobs in their previous professional field.
  9. How do spouses find an appropriate job after arrival?
    1. Spouses learn the local language, upskill until they reach the appropriate professional knowledge and skill level and apply for jobs until hired.
  10. How can spouses develop skills that are in demand?
    1. Spouses can attend online courses and/or online/offline bootcamps to get into a high-paying profession quickly.
  11. How can spouses get work experience in the new field of work?
    1. Spouses apply for a junior-level position and gain work experience in the new professional field.
  12. What governmental support can a spouse get to learn new skills?
    1. Many countries support people upskilling and developing new skills in preparation to join the workforce.
  13. What organizations can help to find a job for the spouse?
    1. Recruitment agencies are happy to receive applications from all candidates as long as they match the common requirements.

Write

Cover letter

  1. What is the cover letter?
    1. The cover letter describes the candidate's intention for the job application and how they fit the job requirements more than other candidates.
  2. What is the right structure for a cover letter?
    1. Candidates choose a distinctive approach to structure the cover letter, differentiating from other candidates.
  3. What content should a cover letter include?
    1. Candidates describe their unique fit to the job requirements by listing knowledge, skills, experience, and unique capabilities.
  4. What is the appropriate length of a cover letter?
    1. Candidates limit the cover letter to one page.
  5. How do candidates write a cover letter?
    1. Candidates write lots of sections and combine the best-fitting ones for each job application.
  6. When do candidates write a cover letter?
    1. Candidates write their draft sections before starting the job application process to speed up the actual application process per job ad.
  7. What language level is required for a cover letter?
    1. Candidates ensure that all parts of their job application, including their cover letter, are proofread by an English native speaker.
  8. How do candidates include the cover letter in the job application?
    1. Candidates create one or several files for their application with a PDF software tool, according to the requirements of the job application software of the individual employers.
  9. What software tools can candidates use to write the cover letter?
    1. Candidates can use a word processing software tool (e.g., Google Docs, Microsoft Word) or an online collaboration software tool (e.g., Notion) to create the cover letter.
  10. What software tools can candidates use to merge the cover letter with the resume?
    1. Intrenion recommends free-of-charge PDF24 Tools for nearly all PDF tasks.

Apply

Job application

  1. How do candidates apply for a job?
    1. Candidates search for jobs on job platforms and apply for them on the corresponding employer websites.
  2. How do candidates keep track of their job applications?
    1. Candidates keep track of their job applications with a sheet.
  3. What is the preferred job application channel?
    1. Candidates apply for a job via the employer job portal instead of an online job platform to show their interest to the employer, instead of signaling that are applying for lots of other jobs.
  4. How do candidates employ an effective job application process?
    1. After ensuring they're at a sufficiently high skill level, candidates apply only for jobs that they meet the most requirements for.
  5. How do candidates employ an efficient job application process?
    1. Candidates prepare their job application documents by combining different sections instead of writing additional text per job application.
  6. How do candidates make the decision to apply or not apply?
    1. Candidates decide about a concrete job application after thoroughly reading the job knowledge, skill, and experience requirements.
  7. How do candidates ask employers if they are interested in international candidates in need of visa sponsorship?
    1. Candidates directly apply for the job including a clear statement that they are in need of visa sponsorship for this position, instead of asking the employer via a separate inquiry process.
  8. How do international candidates ease the employer's decision to hire an international candidate?
    1. Candidates ensure that they are not applying for jobs at very small companies without the required HR processes in place. They should focus on their unique value proposition that makes them extraordinarily interesting for the employer in comparison to other candidates.

Pitch

Job interviews

  1. What is the job interview?
    1. The job interview is a discussion between some current employees of a company and candidates who want to join this employer.
  2. What is the reason for the job interview?
    1. Employers want to ensure that they hire candidates that fit their business and avoid hiring the wrong ones. They use job interviews as a quality gate for candidates.
  3. What kinds of job interviews exist?
    1. Job interviews can be classified according to their aim, structure, or participants.
  4. What is the structure of a job interview?
    1. The structure of job interviews can differ among employers. They can be very structured and formal, but completely unstructured interviews also exist which are closer to a chat.
  5. What is the duration of a job interview?
    1. A job interview normally takes 60-90 minutes.
  6. How do candidates prepare for a job interview?
    1. Candidates can prepare with peers for different types of job interviews with the help of question lists in books and on websites.
  7. Why is a candidate's self-confidence so important in a job interview?
    1. Employers are looking for candidates who are self-confident proposing, explaining, and defending their position instead of only following the orders of others.
  8. What should candidates show in the job interview?
    1. Candidates show their knowledge, hard skills to get the job done, and soft skills to cooperate and collaborate with their future co-workers.
  9. What is a structured job interview?
    1. A structured interview follows a system and uses templates, checklists, and rate cards to structurally compare candidates, reducing bias from the process.
  10. What is an unstructured job interview?
    1. An unstructured interview resembles a conversation or chat instead of structurally assessing the capabilities of the employees.
  11. Why is the job interview approach important for the candidate?
    1. The candidate uses the knowledge of the job interview approach to prepare for the job interview with peers.
  12. How can candidates structure their job interviews?
    1. Candidates can rephrase each question so that it matches their learned and tested approach to link experience with skills.
  13. How do candidates receive feedback after a job interview?
    1. Candidates should ask directly in the interview about feedback instead of waiting for written feedback.

Job interview process by company size

  1. How does the interview process differ by company size?
    1. Large companies employ more resources to structure their interview process with the help of a high-maturity HR function, whereby smaller companies don't have the resources to further develop their interview process.
  2. What is the usual interview process for startups and small businesses?
    1. Startups and small businesses follow a more unstructured interview process by conducting several interviews with different teams, but not structurally taking notes and comparing candidates to each other.
  3. What is the usual interview process for scaleups and mid-market businesses?
    1. Scaleups and mid-market businesses follow a more structured process by applying good practices from the experience of their HR team, which can differ in maturity level from company to company.
  4. What is the usual interview process for large enterprises?
    1. Large enterprises usually use a high-maturity interview process including structured interviews, feedback software, and questionnaires based on long-time development and improvement of their HR function.
  5. How do candidates prepare for a startup / small business interview process?
    1. Candidates learn how to excel in chaotic interview processes and structure the interview process by themselves.
  6. How do candidates prepare for a scaleup / mid-market business interview process?
    1. Candidates learn how to rephrase interview questions to link their experience with their soft skills and behavior in organizations.
  7. How do candidates prepare for a large enterprise interview process?
    1. Candidates learn how to differentiate against other candidates in a highly competitive interview process with many other competing candidates.
  8. How can candidates understand the interview process early?
    1. Candidates listen and ask questions in the first interview, which normally gives an overview of the upcoming additional interviews.

Job interview question types

  1. How many interviews can candidates expect?
    1. Companies usually conduct 2-6 interviews, while the literature writes about 4 interviews as the optimum number to assess a candidate.
  2. What are some possible interview questions?
    1. Intrenion provides a list with categorized typical interview questions.
  3. How can candidates prepare for interview questions?
    1. Candidates meet in a group of peers interviewing each other, writing down their answers, and providing feedback to each other.
  4. Why is interview preparation important?
    1. Candidates can significantly improve their interview performance with good preparation, reducing the time needed to think about an answer and enriching the content of the answer.
  5. How do candidates rank themselves in the candidate competition?
    1. Candidates research profiles of professionals on LinkedIn and imagine the stories and experiences these people can tell in interviews.
  6. How do candidates focus on their job interview strengths?
    1. Candidates determine their strengths and form a positive image of themselves in interviews.
  7. How do candidates improve their job interview weaknesses?
    1. Candidates improve themselves in all areas that are relevant to the average employer in their field to a level that makes them employable.
  8. What are some relevant books to prepare for job interviews?
    1. Intrenion recommends the book "Victoria Hoevemeyer: High-Impact Interview Questions: 701 Behavior-Based Questions to Find the Right Person for Every Job" to prepare for job interviews.
  9. How can candidates prepare for job interviews in a group?
    1. Candidates set up an interview prep group around a topic (e.g., profession, prospective migration) in their city and invite others to join this group via social networking.
  10. How can candidates learn about a company's interview process?
    1. Candidates read Glassdoor reviews and contact current employees through LinkedIn to learn about a company's interview process.

HR job interview

  1. What is the aim of the HR job interview?
    1. The HR job interview verifies the information in the resume and explains the upcoming interview and hiring process to the candidate.
  2. What is the structure of the HR job interview?
    1. Companies structure the HR job interview along the topics to discuss with the HR/recruitment professional of the employer.
  3. What are the usual questions in the HR job interview?
    1. Recruiters usually ask questions about the resume including knowledge, skills, and experience, verifying the information is correct and reviewing the candidate in relation to the company's organizational culture.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the HR job interview?
    1. Recruiters usually don't go into detail about past experience, deep process or technology questions, and a detailed team-culture fit.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the HR job interview?
    1. Recruiters ask standard questions for which the candidate should have an answer without deeper analysis or thinking, which is possible through average interview preparation.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the HR job interview?
    1. Candidates learn the usual recruiter questions about resumes and educate themselves about the company they apply to.
  7. How do candidates perform in the HR job interview?
    1. Candidates focus on the key points about why they are an especially good fit for the employer.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the HR job interview?
    1. Candidates can ask the recruiter bluntly what the company is in search of and what isn't written in the job ad.

Hard skills job interview

  1. What is the aim of the hard skills job interview?
    1. The hard skills job interview assesses the hard skills (e.g., software engineering, project management, media design) of the candidate by giving real-world work examples and looking at the candidate's approach and execution in solving the given challenges.
  2. What is the structure of the hard skills job interview?
    1. Companies structure the hard skills job interview along with several more or less typical challenges (e.g., software development task) which can each have different solution approaches.
  3. What are the usual questions in the hard skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues usually ask questions about concrete solution approaches and their implications for the concrete tasks and the broader organizational challenge.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the hard skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues usually don't ask detailed questions about their resume, educational history, or former work experience.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the hard skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues can ask detailed questions about technology solutions, management frameworks, or other subject-matter-related approaches.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the hard skills job interview?
    1. Candidates become subject-matter experts in their professional field to show their deep expertise in the job interview.
  7. How do candidates perform in the hard skills job interview?
    1. Candidates explain current trends in their field, which may be new for the interviewer, and can lead the discussion around their topic.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the hard skills job interview?
    1. Candidates ask the colleagues for feedback directly after they finish a task.

Soft skills job interview

  1. What is the aim of the soft skills job interview?
    1. The soft skills interview assesses the soft skills (e.g., communication, presentation, group collaboration, leadership) of the candidate by discussing real-world organizational situations and looking at the candidate's approach and execution of solving the given challenges.
  2. What is the structure of the soft skills job interview?
    1. Companies structure the soft skills interview using several typical tasks (e.g., presentation, employee conversation) and want to see specific behaviors when candidates solve these challenges.
  3. What are the usual questions in the soft skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues usually ask questions about typical social situations in organizations and the candidate's approach to solving them, including examples of how they solved similar problems in the past.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the soft skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues don't usually ask deep subject-matter questions, but they may touch on these topics.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the soft skills job interview?
    1. Colleagues create more and more twists in the situations to challenge the candidate. They expect that the candidate is prepared to provide detailed approaches to social challenges.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the soft skills job interview?
    1. Candidates prepare soft skill interviews with peers by discussing typical situations and writing down the corresponding approaches.
  7. How do candidates perform in the soft skills job interview?
    1. Candidates show their ability and experience in solving social challenges by providing previously prepared approaches, without too much thinking in the job interview itself.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the soft skills job interview?
    1. Candidates ask the colleagues about the required soft skills and their performance at the end of the interview.

Case study job interview

  1. What is the aim of the case study job interview?
    1. The case study interview assesses the ability of the candidate to solve complex challenges with the help of frameworks, methodologies, and processes.
  2. What is the structure of the case study job interview?
    1. Companies structure case study job interviews using one or several case studies and want to see specific problem-solution development behavior when candidates are solving these challenges.
  3. What are the usual questions in the case study job interview?
    1. Colleagues usually provide the candidate with a verbal or written case study about a more or less typical business situation.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the case study job interview?
    1. Colleagues don't usually ask deep industry-related questions but can touch on candidate-specific areas depending on the candidate's background.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the case study job interview?
    1. Colleagues expect candidates to know the relevant problem-solving frameworks, methodologies, and processes and how to adapt them to the given challenge.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the case study job interview?
    1. Candidates conduct a high number of case study challenges with peers, using various frameworks to get the job done.
  7. How do candidates perform in the case study job interview?
    1. Candidates discuss their problem-solving approach aloud and how they use the different frameworks, methodologies, and processes.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the case study job interview?
    1. Candidates ask the colleagues for feedback directly after the case study task has ended.

Hiring manager job interview

  1. What is the aim of the hiring manager job interview?
    1. The hiring manager job interview assesses the capability of the candidate to work with its direct and maybe next superior by discussing the work and leadership styles of both.
  2. What is the structure of the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Most companies give their hiring managers the freedom to structure their job interviews by themselves.
  3. What are the usual questions in the hiring manager job interview?
    1. The hiring manager usually asks questions about the personal work and leadership style of the candidate and what she can contribute to the team beyond the day-to-day work.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Hiring managers usually don't ask questions that were/will be discussed in other interviews.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Hiring managers want to know how they would personally and professionally (i.e., regarding the career of the hiring manager) profit from the candidate if they join the company.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Candidates prepare the presentation of their unique value proposition and adapt the approach to the specific company.
  7. How do candidates perform in the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Candidates show their unique value proposition and how it contributes to the team and the professional success of the hiring manager.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the hiring manager job interview?
    1. Candidates ask the hiring manager about feedback on their unique value proposition and how it could contribute to the company.

Team fit job interview

  1. What is the aim of the team fit job interview?
    1. The team fit interview assesses the personal fit between the candidate and the team they will work with if hired.
  2. What is the structure of the team fit job interview?
    1. Many companies give their teams the freedom to structure their job interviews by themselves.
  3. What are the usual questions in the team fit job interview?
    1. Teams usually ask questions about the personal collaboration and cooperation style of the candidate and what they can contribute to the team beyond the day-to-day work.
  4. What are some unusual questions in the team fit job interview?
    1. Teams usually don't ask questions that were/will be discussed in other interviews.
  5. What are some challenging questions in the team fit job interview?
    1. Teams want to know how they would profit (e.g., learning & education) from the new team member if they join the company.
  6. How do candidates prepare for the team fit job interview?
    1. Candidates prepare the explanation of their collaboration & cooperation style, how they have adopted other styles, and how colleagues learned from them in the past.
  7. How do candidates perform in the team fit job interview?
    1. Candidates show their ability to adapt to different team cultures and demonstrate that they will be a contributing team member, not only doing their job but advancing the team too.
  8. How do candidates collect feedback in the team fit job interview?
    1. Candidates ask the team about their team culture, what they require from team members, and if they think the candidate is able to contribute to the team.

Join

Employment contract alignment

  1. What is the process after a candidate has made it through all the interviews?
    1. Employers offer the candidate an employment contract including all details related to work conditions (e.g., hours), payment structure (i.e., fixed and variable salary), and other terms.
  2. What is the goal of the contract alignment phase?
    1. The candidate and the employer reach an agreement over the employment contract conditions.
  3. How does an employer send a job offer?
    1. Employers usually send job offers via email first before signing the contract on paper.
  4. How long does the candidate have to accept the offer?
    1. Candidates usually have 7-14 days to accept an employment contract offer.
  5. How do candidates check the employment contract?
    1. Candidates compare the employment contract offer clauses with employment law good practices in the corresponding jurisdiction (e.g., a country in Europe, a state in the US).
  6. Are there any warning signs that the candidate should abort the application process?
    1. Candidates should double-check employment contracts with unusual terms & conditions with their peers, employment law attorney, and/or Google.
  7. How do candidates negotiate the employment contract terms?
    1. Candidates explain their salary expectations and terms & conditions and both parties meet in the middle.
  8. What are the relevant employment contract sections to negotiate?
    1. Candidates mainly negotiate the fixed and variable salary and the perks (e.g., products and services to be used for personal use, too).
  9. What is the interest of the employer?
    1. Employers usually want to close the employment contract within the budget they have internally set, without too many long negotiations to fill the position and get the team to productivity.
  10. What should candidates in a weak negotiation position do?
    1. Candidates in a weak negotiation position aim to close the contract, without upsetting the employer with a lengthy employment contract negotiation.
  11. What should candidates in a strong negotiation position do?
    1. Candidates in a strong negotiation position aim to get the best possible employment contract terms, including salary and perks.
  12. What is the negotiation position of an international candidate?
    1. International candidates who need visa sponsorship are usually in an average to weak negotiation position, use the visa sponsoring job to get abroad, and change to an employer with better terms & conditions later on.

Employment contract signature

  1. What is the employment contract signature phase?
    1. Employers send the agreed contract via an online signature tool or via post to the new hire, who signs it and sends it back.
  2. How do candidates remotely sign the employment contract?
    1. Employers use a digital signature tool to virtually sign the contract with the new hire.
  3. What can go wrong in the employment contract signature phase?
    1. Employers sometimes change their mind at the last possible moment and choose another candidate, or decide not to sign an employment contract at all.
  4. What documents can candidates expect to sign?
    1. Candidates sign the employment contract, a non-disclosure agreement, and other employment-related documents.
  5. What language should these documents be in for international candidates?
    1. Candidates only sign documents written in English and don't sign documents they aren't able to read.
  6. How do candidates inform their employer about a last-minute process abortion?
    1. Candidates inform their employer as soon as possible if they decide not to sign the employment contract.

Immigrate

Immigration

  1. What is the structure of the immigration process?
    1. The usual steps of the immigration process are an employment agency pre-test, the visa application, and an appointment at the immigration office after arrival.
  2. Who supports the immigration process?
    1. Employers usually hire an immigration & relocation service provider to guide the candidate and the employer through the process.
  3. Who drives the immigration process?
    1. If hired, the immigration & relocation service provider should drive the process and ask both parties for the required documents. The candidate and the employer must be cooperative and act quickly.
  4. How long does the immigration process take?
    1. The immigration process usually takes between 3 and 12 months, depending on the country.
  5. What documents are required for the immigration process?
    1. New hires and employers must provide a large number of various documents, which the immigration & relocation service provider and/or the authorities request as and when needed.
  6. How do new hires prepare for the immigration process?
    1. New hires prepare for the immigration process by translating their relevant personal, academic, and professional documents (i.e., birth certificate, certificates of study, transcript of records, employer references) into English.
  7. How do new hires increase the speed of the immigration process?
    1. New hires increase the speed of the immigration process by having all the relevant documents at hand without requiring further processing, and by answering document requests as soon as possible.
  8. What are the usual legal challenges of the immigration process?
    1. New hires and employers often face the challenge of not having all the requested documents at hand, or surprisingly not meeting all the requirements by law.
  9. How can new hires start working for the new employer before the immigration process is complete?
    1. Employers can remotely employ new hires through a professional employer organization (PEO) and/or employer of record (EOR) service provider.
  10. What is the emigration process in the Philippines?
    1. Philippine migrants must conduct a special process to exit the Philippines, including a huge amount of paperwork which normally requires 1-3 months until the migrant is allowed to leave the country.

Relocate

Relocation

  1. What is the structure of the relocation process?
    1. The usual steps of the relocation process are finding accommodation, booking the travel itinerary, and moving to the new location, with additional steps depending on the individual relocation case.
  2. Who supports the relocation process?
    1. Employers usually hire an immigration & relocation service provider to guide the candidate and the employer through the process.
  3. What are the decisions to make before the relocation process starts?
    1. New hires must decide what kind of accommodation they prefer, what part of the city they prefer, and their budget for accommodation.
  4. What are the usual relocation challenges?
    1. Migrants face challenges finding an apartment from a private landlord without being on-site to meet in person.
  5. How long does the relocation process usually take?
    1. The relocation process starts with the immigration process and shouldn't take longer than that.
  6. What are the costs of the relocation?
    1. Employers usually take on some of the relocation costs, but other costs remain with the new hire.
  7. When do new hires start their own relocation without their partner?
    1. New hires should start the relocation process immediately after signing the employment contract, to ensure nothing hinders their move to the location of the employer as soon as possible.
  8. When do new hires relocate in the immigration & relocation process?
    1. New hires relocate to the city of the employer as soon the destination country's authorities grant the visa (and other relevant immigration documents).
  9. How do new hires get country-specific relocation information?
    1. New hires must research most of the information on their own and/or use social media to get in contact with other people because no central platform for this use case exists to date.

Accommodation

  1. What is the primary goal of the accommodation-finding process?
    1. Migrating new hires want to find an average, comparatively cost-efficient accommodation, instead of the perfect accommodation which would stretch their personal finances.
  2. How do new hires find accommodation?
    1. New hires follow the process of the immigration & relocation service provider or utilize several online platforms for "long-term temporary accommodation."
  3. What are the usual accommodation types?
    1. New hires can choose between various types of accommodation, but Intrenion recommends focusing on "long-term temporary accommodation" to simplify and speed up the search.
  4. What are the most cost-efficient accommodation types?
    1. Shared apartments are the most cost-efficient accommodation type, and work perfectly fine for the first few months after arrival.
  5. What are the types of temporary accommodation?
    1. The usual temporary accommodation types are hotel/motel rooms, furnished apartments, and shared apartments.
  6. What are the government requirements for accommodation?
    1. Some countries demand resident registration, but not all renters/landlords (e.g., hotels) allow registration at their place.
  7. How do new hires negotiate the rental contract?
    1. New hires negotiate the rental contract depending on the usual process and culture of the specific country.
  8. How do new hires apply for an apartment?
    1. New hires follow the (recommended) process of the immigration & relocation service provider or the online platform through which they found the apartment.
  9. How do new hires compete in the rental market?
    1. New hires focus on long-term temporary accommodation and communicate their prospective high income, which provides the landlord with some security for getting their money.
  10. What are the options for challenging accommodation markets?
    1. New hires focus on accommodation via the immigration & relocation service provider and/or long-term temporary rental online platforms in cities where it's challenging to find accommodation.
  11. What documents do new hires need for the accommodation process?
    1. New hires need at least a copy of their passport and their signed employment contract.

Governmental bureaucracy

  1. What are the usual governmental bureaucracy steps?
    1. New hires must follow various governmental bureaucracy steps including resident registration, immigration process, statutory health insurance, statutory pension scheme, driving license, and more.
  2. What documents do new hires need for governmental bureaucracy?
    1. New hires need the documents they already provided as part of the immigration & relocation process, and documents that the employer can provide on request.
  3. What are the challenges of governmental bureaucracy?
    1. The new hire needs someone who knows the processes and, in European countries with a local language, someone who can translate government documents.
  4. Who can support new hires dealing with governmental bureaucracy?
    1. New hires receive support from the immigration & relocation service provider and the HR department but should ensure a co-worker with experience in governmental processes is ready to answer individual questions.
  5. Where can new hires find more information about governmental bureaucracy in specific countries?
    1. Most countries describe their governmental bureaucracy in detail on their websites, but in European countries with a local language, much of this information is provided in the local language only.

Insurance

  1. What insurance do new hires need in Europe and North America?
    1. New hires need at least health insurance, personal liability insurance, car insurance (if they own a car), and renter insurance.
  2. How do new hires apply for insurance?
    1. New hires ask the immigration & relocation service provider and their HR department and inform themselves about insurance solutions in the country when they've arrived.
  3. What are the required documents for insurance?
    1. The insurer provides the new hire with a list of the required documents.
  4. Who can support new hires dealing with insurance?
    1. New hires can expect some degree of support from the immigration & relocation service provider and the HR department but should be ready to inform themselves about the required insurances and their contracting processes.

Pre-trip to the preferred country/city

  1. Why is a trip to the preferred country useful?
    1. Candidates learn about the country, the city, and the people living there significantly better on-site than from reading articles.
  2. When should candidates make a trip to the preferred country?
    1. Candidates make a trip to their preferred country if they have the budget, have assessed their knowledge and skills, have determined their positioning, and are sure to find a job in this particular country/city.
  3. How do candidates decide on a city in the preferred country?
    1. Candidates choose the largest city of a country in Europe and a mid-sized city in the preferred region/state for a trip or visit several regions/states in the United States.
  4. What research is useful to select a preferred country and city?
    1. Candidates usually read about the working culture in different countries and the cultural life in cities before deciding on a specific country and city.
  5. How do candidates apply for a tourist visa for a trip to the preferred country?
    1. Candidates use an online visa service to apply for a tourist visa.
  6. How do candidates connect with people and employers on their trip?
    1. Candidates research meetups and other meeting formats to connect with people and employers on their trip.
  7. What cultural understanding should candidates aim to get on a trip to the preferred country?
    1. Candidates should understand the daily city life, how people communicate with foreigners, how many migrant workers with their background they could meet, and if they can imagine living in the city.
  8. What budget is needed for a trip to the preferred country/city?
    1. Candidates should have a budget of a minimum of 2000 EUR/USD incl. flights for a one-week trip.
  9. What are some cost-efficient accommodation options for this trip?
    1. Candidates book cost-efficient accommodation in specific youth hotels or on Airbnb.

Schools for children

  1. What are the challenges of migrating with children?
    1. New hires need a significantly higher budget when migrating with school children to finance the first few weeks without salary, and the special expenses in the first few months.
  2. What are the challenges of migrating with school-age children?
    1. New hires must find a school for their children which fits the requirements of the parents.
  3. What are the challenges of migrating to continental Europe with school-age children?
    1. New hires must find a school for their children, which can be especially challenging in European countries with a local language.
  4. What are the general approaches to moving with children?
    1. New hires choose to bring their whole family with them on their initial trip to the new country/city, move some of them (in case of large families), or bring them to the destination country/city later, after setting the apartment up.
  5. When is the best time to move with school-age children?
    1. New hires ideally move with school-age children in the time between two school years (normally summer break).
  6. What are the challenges of finding a school?
    1. New hires must follow the governmental process to find and register with a school. They should also conduct a lot of research on which school is the best for their children.
  7. How do new hires apply for their children's school?
    1. New hires follow the school registering process of the local public education authorities.
  8. How can children prepare for the transition?
    1. New hires involve their family at the earliest stage of the migration process, before deciding to move at all.
  9. How much does migrating with children cost?
    1. Candidates plan for one-time expenses of several thousand EUR/USD if they are moving with children.
  10. What are the higher living costs of migrating with children?
    1. Living costs can become very high in cities with an accommodation shortage, which is the case in a growing number of cities in Western Europe and the United States.

Higher education for migrants

  1. What are the challenges of studying abroad?
    1. Candidates and/or their spouses who want to (part-time) study should learn about the education system and its costs early on, before planning to migrate to another country/city.
  2. What are the challenges of studying in continental Europe?
    1. Prospective (part-time) students may find it challenging to find English-speaking study programs in continental Europe.
  3. What are the opportunities for studying in continental Europe?
    1. Students in continental Europe profit from very low tuition payments, which can be as low as 500 EUR per year.

Societal integration

  1. How do candidates learn about society abroad?
    1. Candidates learn about a foreign society by reading about the experiences of other people.
  2. How do new hires integrate into society abroad?
    1. New hires integrate into society by learning about country- and city-specific characteristics and applying them in their daily life, without giving up their cultural identity.
  3. How do new hires find friends abroad?
    1. New hires find new friends at meetups and other public events, meeting people with a similar professional background, and utilizing these new networks to meet even more people.
  4. How do non-working spouses find friends?
    1. Spouses look out for communities about their personal interests or their profession.
  5. How important is learning the local language?
    1. Intrenion recommends only migrating to countries and cities with a significant English-speaking society.
  6. What are the typical communication challenges in continental Europe?
    1. Migrants without local language knowledge will face communication challenges in daily life (e.g., post office), which are usually solvable with the help of English-speaking bystanders.
  7. What is the appropriate language level for personal use?
    1. Migrants should learn the local language to CEFR level A1.
  8. When should new hires start learning the local language?
    1. New hires start learning the local language after arriving at the destination city and settling in their new environment.
  9. How do new hires get a head start on learning a new language?
    1. Candidates get a head start on the new language by doing an online language course before moving to the target destination.
  10. What are the online resources for learning a new language?
    1. Intrenion provides a list of online language schools.

Annex: Job role market situations

An overview of the competitive (demand/supply) situation of different job roles.

By function

  • Excellent
    • Development/Engineering
  • Good
    • IT Infrastructure
    • Product
    • Sales
  • Competitive
    • Customer service
    • Finance
    • Human Resource
    • Marketing
    • Operations
    • Procurement
    • Project
    • Strategy
  • Challenging
    • n/a
  • Bad
    • n/a

By industry

  • Excellent
    • Information and communication
  • Good
    • Manufacturing
    • Electricity, gas, steam, and air conditioning supply
    • Construction
    • Financial and insurance activities
    • Professional, scientific, and technical activities
  • Competitive
    • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
    • Mining and quarrying
    • Water supply; sewerage, waste management, and remediation activities
    • Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, and motorcycles
    • Transportation and storage
    • Real estate activities
    • Administrative and support service activities
    • Public administration and defense; compulsory social security
    • Education
    • Human health and social work activities
  • Challenging
    • Accommodation and food service activities
    • Arts, entertainment, and recreation
  • Bad
    • n/a

Annex: Upskilling resources

A list of upskilling resources with a focus on design, product, and tech roles.

Annex: Integrated cover letter & resume example

Job ad

Responsibilities

  1. Development and deployment of a monitoring system for operational and financial key performance indicators (SLAs, OLAs, KPIs) for controlling and optimizing internal and external IT service providers, as well as monitoring contractually agreed services
  2. Design, implementation, and delivery of services for IT operations and continuous development of internal and external IT service providers
  3. Provider-side coordination and commissioning of required service changes and new services, as well as ensuring correct implementation and commissioning
  4. Development of (multi-) provider management and management of vendor and supplier relationships in IT operations
  5. Support in the evaluation and selection of internal and external IT service providers, with regard to further cooperation based on defined KPI systems in SLAs and OLAs
  6. Ensuring risk and compliance management with regard to internal and external services
  7. Participation in market analyses for the implementation of contract and license management, as well as for the definition of selection criteria for service providers

Requirements

  1. Completed university studies in business information technology, computer science, natural sciences, engineering, or comparable qualification with a focus on IT
  2. Relevant professional experience in the areas of (multi-) provider management and sourcing of internal and external IT service providers
  3. Profound practical experience in business relationship or stakeholder management
  4. Very good knowledge in the areas of service management and IT project management, ideally according to ITIL standards
  5. Economic and entrepreneurial thinking coupled with customer orientation
  6. Confident and professional appearance, as well as the ability to work in a team and be assertive
  7. Very good knowledge of German and English, both written and spoken; basic knowledge of Polish an advantage

Cover letter & resume

Street & No. • 14052 Berlin, Germany • +49 1234567890 • mail@mail.com • LinkedIn • Year of birth: 1988

Job application • as Provider Manager • at ACME Corp.starting on 2021-11-15 • through corporate career website • on 2021-09-10 • with a required yearly gross salary of ≥85k EUR

Guiding principles

Applying for this position with my knowledge, skills, and experience described in my resume below, I meet the responsibilities & requirements you have specified in your job description.

Three factors drive my actions and are therefore the guiding principles for my work and collaboration with my colleagues:

  • Operational excellence
    • A culture of process orientation instead of firefighting, good practices instead of reinventing the wheel, and written guidelines instead of verbal instructions and meetings.
    • Fact-based discussions and cleanly written documentation instead of buzzword bingo meetings.
    • Quick designs and continual feedback instead of initial perfectionism.
  • Improvement & innovation
    • A culture of continual improvement based on open feedback instead of top-down guidelines only.
    • Criticism of the organization's actions instead of waiting until external forces become a threat.
    • Strategic thinking in business models instead of exclusively improving operational details.
  • Learning & education
    • A culture of independent learning for the benefit of the organization and the individual instead of waiting or demanding training.
    • Proactively providing instead of withholding information and knowledge.
    • Learning in collaboration with other organizations and openly sharing good practices instead of reinventing the wheel.

Competencies

Modularization, systematization, standardization, automation of strategic and operational management processes • Workflow design, test, and implementation • IT sourcing transaction, transition, transformation planning & execution • Team & organizational learning & development • Leadership abilities for teams of ≤15 FTE

Responsibilities assumed

  • TBD...

Requirements met

  • TBD...

Work Experience

  • IT Process Manager @ Organization w
    • 2021-01 – 2021-11
    • Developed strategic and operational IT management processes increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.
    • Developed a risk evaluation plan and service delivery quality assurance program.
    • Developed strategic and operational IT service management processes simulations to understand the implications of developed changes.
  • Deputy Department Head @ Organization x
    • 2019-08 – 2020-11
    • Developed approaches to streamline operations throughout the organization by implementing modern work approaches and a simplified process management approach.
    • Developed a department handbook with organizational structures, process documentation, and standard operating procedures making departmental processes transparent to the team and to organizational stakeholders.
    • Developed a leadership approach that focuses on learning and development instead of mollycoddling.
  • Consultant @ Organization y
    • 2017-10 – 2019-07
    • Developed business requirements and customer needs in preparation of IT sourcing transaction, transition, and transformation programs.
    • Developed IT outsourcing contracts, service level agreements, and IT service catalogs.
    • Developed IT outsourcing service delivery continual improvement methodologies, processes, metrics, and dashboards.
  • Consultant @ Organization z
    • 2015-10 – 2017-09
    • Delivered IT outsourcing consulting services to mid-market businesses with a focus on IT infrastructure and horizontal application projects.
    • Developed a mid-market IT sourcing/procurement process model including requirements collection, service design, and IT service provider selection.
    • Developed a business model delivering IT consulting services to mid-market businesses based on self-service information and remote services.

School

  • Master of Science in Business Information Technology
    • University of x
    • 2013-10 – 2015-09
  • Semester abroad
    • University of y
    • 2012-03 – 2012-06
  • Bachelor of Science in International Business Administration
    • University of z
    • 2009-10 – 2013-02

Annex: Resume adaption examples

A resume example with sentences that correspond to responsibilities and requirements usually found in job ads.

Sources

Responsibilities

  • Strategizing
    • Requirement: Formulate business strategy with others in the executive team
      • Example: As an entrepreneur, designed different business models and corresponding strategies.
    • Requirement: Participate in strategic planning and goal-setting for various business functions, including IT and customer support
      • Example: As an IT management consultant, co-developed functional strategies including roadmaps and stakeholder alignment approaches.
    • Requirement: Formulate strategic and operational objectives
      • Example: As a deputy department head, developed strategic and operational department and exercise objectives.
  • Running
    • Plan and monitor the day-to-day running of the business to ensure smooth progress
      • As a deputy department head, developed a day-to-day monitoring approach to ensure smooth business operations aligned with strategic goals.
    • Ensure all operations are carried out in an appropriate, cost-effective way
      • As a deputy department head, developed resource optimization strategies aligned with team members and superiors and monitored their execution.
    • Oversee efficiency of operational processes
      • As a deputy department head, developed a daily work execution and reporting approach.
    • Ensure all systems operate smoothly and align with our quality standards
      • As an IT management consultant, developed system operation quality standards and a monitoring approach.
    • Monitor daily operations and address potential issues when they arise
      • As a deputy department head, developed a daily work planning and execution approach to address quality challenges.
    • Perform quality controls and monitor production KPIs
      • As an IT management consultant, developed process quality controls and KPI systems to provide reports to superiors and stakeholders.
    • Evaluate regularly the efficiency of business procedures according to organizational objectives and apply improvements
      • see above
    • Evaluate overall performance by gathering, analyzing and interpreting data and metrics
      • see above
    • Establish production KPIs and conduct quality assessments
      • see above
    • Assess processes, take measurements and interpret data
      • see above
    • Perform process simulations
      • As a process manager, developed strategic and operational IT service management processes simulations to understand the implications of developed changes.
    • Manage cost and time constraints
      • As an IT management consultant, developed project plans thereby taking into account time and cost constraints.
  • Improving
    • Analyze business requirements and customer needs
      • As an IT management consultant, developed business requirements and customer needs in preparation of IT sourcing transaction, transition, and transformation programs.
    • Research methods to improve operations and reduce costs
      • As a deputy department head, developed approaches to streamline operations throughout the organization by implementing modern work approaches and a simplified process management approach.
    • Revise and/or formulate policies and promote their implementation
      • As an IT management consultant, developed process policies as part of IT outsourcing transition & transformation programs.
    • Maximize the efficiency of all business procedures
      • As a process manager, developed strategic and operational IT management processes increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.
    • Improve operational management systems, processes, and best practices
      • As a deputy department head, developed operational management systems, processes, and good practices.
    • Implement efficient processes and standards
      • see above
    • Design policies that align with the overall strategy
      • As an IT management consultant, developed policies to track, measure, and report IT outsourcing contracts to provide effective and efficient services for the customer.
    • Oversee the implementation of technology solutions throughout the organization
      • As an IT management consultant, developed technology solution implementation project plans as part of large transition & transformation programs.
    • Build processes that meet our business objectives and ensure compliance
      • As an IT management consultant, developed IT management measurement & reporting processes, making sure objectives are met and compliance is ensured.
    • Develop, configure and optimize processes from inception through to start up and certification
      • As an entrepreneur, developed process-based business models, tested the corresponding processes with initial customers, and adopted insights from customer interviews.
    • Design, run, test, and upgrade systems and processes
      • As an IT management consultant, designed, tested, and upgraded IT management reporting software solutions to align organizational goals and stakeholder interests with the overall transition & transformation program.
    • Develop best practices, routines, and innovative solutions to improve production rates and quality of output
      • As an entrepreneur, developed business models based on the idea of good practice distribution inside organizations and/or between organizations, instead of "reinventing the wheel".
    • Provide process documentation and operating instructions
      • As a deputy department head, developed a department handbook with organizational structures, process documentation, and standard operating procedures/instructions making departmental processes transparent to the team and to organizational stakeholders.
  • Procuring
    • Manage contracts and relationships with customers, vendors, partners, and other stakeholders
      • As an IT management consultant, developed contracts and relationships with customers, vendors, partners, and other stakeholders.
    • Manage procurement processes and coordinate material and resources allocation
      • As an IT management consultant, developed IT procurement processes to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the IT sourcing function.
    • Manage relationships/agreements with external partners/vendors
      • see above
  • Budgeting
    • Manage budgets and forecasts
      • As a deputy department head, developed a yearly budget plan and forecast to report own approach to superiors and ensure compliance with organizational standards.
    • Oversee expenses and budgeting to help the organization optimize costs and benefits
      • As a deputy department head, developed a budget and expense monitoring approach to help the organization optimize costs and benefits.
    • Monitor financial data and recommend solutions that will improve profitability
      • As an IT management consultant, developed a project-related financial data monitoring approach and recommended solutions that improved project profitability.
  • Managing risks & compliance
    • Evaluate risk and lead quality assurance efforts
      • As an IT management consultant, developed a project risk and quality assurance plan to ensure project progress and compliance and proper stakeholder communication.
      • As a process manager, developed a risk evaluation plan and service delivery quality assurance program.
    • Perform risk assessments
      • As an IT management consultant, developed a risk assessment approach for IT sourcing transaction, transition, and transformation projects.
    • Help the organization’s processes remain legally compliant
      • As an entrepreneur, developed strategies to tackle different legal compliance requirements.
    • Ensure compliance with company policies and regulation
      • As a deputy department head, developed strategies to tackle complex organizational policies and regulations.
    • Ensure that the company runs with legality and conformity to established regulations
      • see above
    • Ensure compliance with local and international laws (e.g., data protection)
      • As an entrepreneur, developed a legal challenges tracking system to keep an overview of legal requirements and relevant information sources.
  • Leading
    • Mentor and motivate teams to achieve productivity and engagement
      • As a deputy department head, developed a leadership approach that focuses on learning and development instead of mollycoddling.
    • Monitor and report on department performance
      • As a deputy department head, developed a department performance monitoring approach to meet organizational objectives and inform stakeholders.
    • Liaise with superior to make decisions for operational activities and set strategic goals
      • As a IT management consultant, developed a project communication approach to meet all superiors' and stakeholders' information requirements and strategic adaptions.
    • Coordinate with the HR department to ensure our hiring plans meet our business needs
      • As a deputy department head, regularly liaised with the HR function to place people in open department positions and remove underperforming members from the team.
    • Take into account the needs of external and internal stakeholders and incorporate them into new strategic plans
      • As deputy department head, developed a superior alignment approach to regularly bring together different superior stakeholders to align their organizational and individual objectives.
  • Training
    • Supervise staff from different departments and provide constructive feedback
      • As a deputy department head, developed a regular feedback mechanism between team members, and between team members and the department head.
    • Supervise and train employees
      • As a deputy department head, developed a training series to coach the team in process & project management skills
    • Recruit, train and supervise staff
      • see above
  • Out
    • Coordinate customer service operations and find ways to ensure customer retention
    • Report on operational performance and suggest improvements
    • Provide administrative support (e.g., updating inventory)
    • Purchase materials, plan inventory, and oversee warehouse efficiency
    • Examine financial data and use it to improve profitability
    • Find ways to increase quality of customer service
    • Oversee customer support processes and organize them to enhance customer satisfaction
    • Review financial information and adjust operational budgets to promote profitability

Requirements

  • In
    • BSc/BA in Business, Computer Science, or another relevant field
      • Degrees in international business management (bachelor's) and information technology (master's).
    • BSc/BA in business administration or relevant field; MSc/MA will be a plus
      • see above
    • Degree in Business, Operations Management, or another relevant field
      • see above
    • Good knowledge of operations management
      • Experience in operations management including process management, workflow design, and organizational learning.
    • Proven work experience as Operations Manager or similar role
      • Experience in several operations-related roles in consulting, team leadership, and process management.
    • Knowledge of organizational effectiveness and operations management
      • Experience in organizational effectiveness and efficiency improvement.
    • Analytical thinker with interpersonal skills
      • Experience in strategic to operational analytical thinking with interpersonal skills to communicate analyses.
    • Analytical mind
      • Experienced long-term thinker analyzing impact and opportunities to various organizations.
    • Problem-solving aptitude
      • Experience problem-solver based on common methodologies and creative approaches.
    • Familiarity with all business functions including HR, finance, supply chain, and IT
      • Experience with several organizational functions including IT, HR, legal, operations, and procurement.
    • In-depth knowledge of diverse business functions and principles (e.g., supply chain, finance, customer service)
      • see above
    • Familiarity with business and financial principles
      • see above
    • Knowledge of data analytics and reporting
      • Experience with fundamental data analyses, especially KPI definition and data-information-knowledge transformation.
    • Experience budgeting and forecasting
      • Experience in budgeting and financial forecasting to meet organizational, functional, and departmental goals.
    • Good with numbers and financial planning
      • see above
    • Working knowledge of data analysis and performance/operation metrics
      • see above
    • Knowledge of process related standards
      • Experience with process & project frameworks and methodologies; created own process-to-information management approaches to simplify managerial transparency.
    • Proven work experience in process engineering
      • Experience with large-scale process management and small-scale workflow management approaches and software tools.
    • Experience in process simulations
      • Experience with IT management process evaluations and simulations to meet the requirements of all internal and external stakeholders.
    • Excellent technical skills
      • Experience in the selection, implementation, and adoption of workflow management tools.
    • Outstanding organizational skills
      • Experience in organizing work streams of projects and line-of-business teams to meet superior and stakeholder requirements.
    • Organizational skills and attention to detail
      • see above
    • Knowledge of operational principles and policies
      • Experience in developing operational principles and policies (e.g., standard operating procedures) meeting the requirements of the organization.
    • Hands-on experience implementing operational processes
      • see above
    • Excellent project management skills
      • Experienced project leader with proven leadership skills in small and large projects.
    • Experience with implementing IT systems
      • Experience in the management of IT software solution implementation projects.
    • Communication skills
      • Experience in developing team-based communication & collaboration approaches to keep an overview of ongoing operations and transparency to superiors and stakeholders.
    • Communication skills
      • see above
    • Leadership abilities
      • Experienced people leader with a focus on team and individual learning & development instead of personal relationships.
    • People skills
      • see above
    • Team leadership ability
      • see above
    • Negotiation skills
      • Experienced negotiator in projects to align the interests of stakeholders of different companies.
    • Familiarity with health and safety regulations
      • Experienced writer of organizational standard operating procedures ensuring health and safety regulations are met.
    • Experience with process and project management software
      • see above
    • Working knowledge of process engineering software packages
      • see above
    • Familiarity with MS Office and various business software (e.g., ERP, CRM)
      • see above
  • Out
    • Proven experience as Head of Operations, Operations Director, or similar leadership role
    • Previous experience as an operations supervisor or similar role
    • Proven experience as Director of Operations or equivalent position
    • Knowledge of industry’s legal rules and guidelines
    • Previous experience as a Business Operations Manager or in a similar role
    • Experience with forecasting models
    • The ability to interpret financial data and allocate budgets
    • CAD or AutoCad skills
    • BS degree in Engineering

Annex: Job & talent platforms

An overview of job boards & talent platforms in Europe and North America.

Worldwide

United States

Europe

Austria

France

Germany

Spain

Annex: Interview questions

A list of typical interview questions.

The list is structured by interview topics and question groups.

Personal

  • Action orientation
    • Tell me about a time that you willingly took on more work even though you were already busy. How were you able to get everything done?
    • Give me an example of something you've done in previous jobs that demonstrates your willingness to work hard.
    • We all feel that we are unique in our accomplishments. Tell me an accomplishment you have had that you feel is unique.
  • Analytical skills
    • Tell me about the task or project that you were responsible for that best demonstrates your ability to analyze information.
    • There are times where there is an incredible amount of data and information to be analyzed. Tell me about a time you faced this situation and exactly what you did to boil everything down to what was most important.
    • Give me an example of a time where you caught a discrepancy or inconsistency in the available information that might have caused significant problems if you had missed it.
  • Information gathering
    • Tell me about a situation where, because you had a strong network, you were able to gather the information that others were not able to secure.
    • Give an example of a time where, because you didn't have enough information, you felt it was wise not to voice your opinion on something.
    • Tell me about the most difficult time you have had in the last couple of years gathering the information you needed for a task or project.
  • Problem Solving
    • Describe a problem situation where you had to seek out relevant information, define key issues, and decide on which steps to take to get the desired results.
    • We can sometimes identify a small problem and fix it before it becomes a major problem. Give me an example of how you have done this.
    • Solving a problem often necessitates an evaluation of alternate solutions. Give me an example of a time when you actively defined several solutions to a single problem.
  • Results orientation
    • Being successful takes more than luck-it also takes hard work. Tell me about a time when you had to work very hard and make personal sacrifices to help your organization/department/team reach its goals.
    • Tell me about a time when you were asked to complete a difficult assignment and the odds were against you. What did you learn from the experience?
    • Describe a time when, against all odds, you were able to get a project or task completed within the defined parameters.
  • Ambiguity
    • Give me an example of a time when there was a decision to be made and procedures were not in place. What was the outcome?
    • Tell me about a time you had to work with conflicting, delayed, or ambiguous information. What did you do to make the most of the situation?
    • Tell me about a time when ambiguity was an obstacle to you getting a task or project completed. What was ambiguous? How long was it ambiguous?
  • Flexibility
    • Tell me about a time when you had to change your point of view or your plans to take in account new information or a change in priorities.
    • Describe a time when you changed your behavior to fit a specific situation.
    • Describe a time when you made a major sacrifice to achieve an important goal.
  • Approachability
    • Give me an example of a time that you were provided with information that enabled you to stop a potential problem from occurring.
    • Tell me about a time when someone came to you with a problem. What did you do?
    • Give me an example of a difficult problem someone recently needed your help to solve.
  • Goal setting
    • Describe how you set your goals for last year and how you measured your work. Did you achieve your goals? If not, why not?
    • Give me an example of a time when you used a systematic process to define your objectives even though you were not prompted or directed to do so. What type of system did you use? What payoff did you get from using the process?
    • Tell me about a time when your department was going through long-term changes or working on a long-term project. What did you do to keep your staff focused?
  • Career ambition
    • Tell me about your greatest career achievements. Why did you pick those examples?
    • Tell me about your career plan and what you have done so far to accomplish it.
    • Give me an example of a time you knew you had outgrown a position and it was time to move on.

Collaboration

  • Listening
    • Give me an example of a time when you were a good listener.
    • Tell me about a time where your active listening skills really paid off for you.
    • Tell me about a time on your last job when you had to get a job done with only oral instructions to guide you.
  • Peer relations
    • Give me an example of a time you were a team player in a project with your peers.
    • Tell me about a time you needed to gain the trust and support of one of your peers in order to be successful on something.
    • Give me an example of a time where you had a disagreement with one of your peers, but were able to find common ground and solve the problem.
  • Teamwork
    • Tell me about a time you were recognized and rewarded for being a valuable team member.
    • Give me an example of when you worked cooperatively as a team member to accomplish an important goal. What was the goal or objective? What was your role in achieving this objective? To what extent did you interact with others on this project?
    • Give me an example of a time where you were willing to compromise on something relatively important to you in order for the team you were a member of to proceed with a project.
  • Oral communication
    • Give me an example of a time when you were able to successfully communicate with another person even when you felt the individual did not value your perspective.
    • Describe a time when you had difficulty communicating your thoughts clearly to another person or group. What message were you trying to convey? Where did the difficulty in communicating lie? How did you end up getting your point across?
    • Tell me about a time when someone misunderstood something you said. How did you determine that you had been misunderstood? How did you make yourself clear? What did you learn from this situation that you have used to improve your communication skills?
  • Written communication
    • Give me an example of the kind of writing you do best.
    • Tell me about a time when you used your written communication skills to convey an important message.
    • Tell me about a time in which you had to use your written communication skills in order to get an important point across.
  • Cooperation
    • Describe a time where, had you not been able to get another person's or group's cooperation, you probably would not have been successful.
    • Gaining the cooperation of others can be difficult. Give a specific example of when you had to do that, and what challenges you faced. What was the outcome? What was the long-term impact on your ability to work with this person?
    • At times, we must all deal with difficult people. This can be a challenge when it is someone with whom we need to develop a cooperative relationship. Tell me about a time you were successful in developing a cooperative relationship with a difficult person at work.
  • Manager relationships
    • Give me an example of something that you learned from your boss that has helped you in your career.
    • Tell me about a time your boss coached you to improve your performance or to learn something new.
    • Tell me about a time you went the "extra mile" for a boss. Why did you do it?
  • Conflict management
    • Think about a time when you were involved in a group project or activity where the others involved were difficult to get along with. What did you do about it?
    • Describe a time when you took personal accountability for a conflict and initiated contact with the individual(s) involved to explain your actions.
    • Describe a time when you had to resolve a conflict between two employees or two people on a team.
  • Decision making
    • Give me an example of a time when you had to make a decision and policies/procedures were not in place.
    • Tell me about one of the most difficult (or one of the best) decisions you made in the last year/six months. What made it so difficult? What process did you use to make the decision?
    • Tell me about one of the most important decisions you have made when the information for that decision was based on the questions you asked.
  • Understanding the organization
    • Tell me how you went about learning how your current organization works.
    • Tell me about a time you recognized a problem before your boss or others in the organization did. What was the problem? What was the result?
    • Give me an example of a time where your understanding of your organization enabled you to get something you needed that, had you lacked the understanding, you probably would not have gotten.

Learning

  • Information sharing
    • Give me an example of a time you provided a direct report with information that helped her make a good decision.
    • Give me an example of a time where you felt you did an outstanding job of sharing information with another person.
    • Keeping information confidential is very important. Describe the last time someone asked you for information that they should not have access to. What did you do?
  • Learning
    • Tell me about a time you needed to learn something quickly for a new task or project. How did you go about it?
    • Walk me through the actions that you have taken to further your own professional development over the last six weeks/months/years.
    • Give me an example of something difficult you had to learn that you did end up learning.
  • Job skills
    • Give me an example of where your understanding of your job contributed to solving a larger problem in the organization.
    • Tell me about a time where your industry knowledge enabled you to identify a potential problem and develop a strategy to address it. What in your knowledge base enabled you to detect the potential problem?
    • Tell me about a time you anticipated the need to improve a technical/functional skill and took action proactively.
  • Learning & development
    • Give me an example of something that you have done in the past to improve yourself.
    • Give me an example of a situation when others knew more than you did. How did you close the gap?
    • Tell me about something specific you did to develop yourself that distinguished you from others.
  • Personal growth
    • Give me an example of a time that you used one of your strengths to help another person or team succeed.
    • Tell me about something you did in your last/current position of which you are particularly proud.
    • Think about a time when setting a positive example had a highly beneficial impact on people you worked with. How did you determine that a strong example was needed? What did you do? What was the effect on the people?
  • Continual improvement
    • Tell me about something new or different that you did in your department that improved customer service, productivity, quality, teamwork, or performance.
    • Tell me about a suggestion you made to improve the way job processes/operations worked.
    • Tell me about a time when you had to sacrifice quality to meet a deadline. How did you handle it?
  • Creativity
    • Creativity often means stepping back from standard ways of thinking. Give me an example of a time when you were able to break out of a structured mindset and explore new or different concepts and ideas.
    • Tell me about a situation when you have had to come up with several new ideas in a hurry. Were they accepted? Were they successful?
    • Tell me about a time when you created a new process or program that was considered risky.

Leadership

  • Teamwork
    • Tell me about a time you were able to gain commitment from others to really work as a team.
    • Describe a time when you had to have coworkers with different work styles or ideas work together on a project. What, specifically, did you do to pull them together?
    • Describe a time you led a team of people who didn't always see eye to eye. What did you do? Why did you choose to do that? How did it work out?
    • Taking charge
    • Tell me about a time when you had to take charge and start the ball rolling to get a job done. What were the ramifications if the job didn't get done? What did you do? How did it turn out?
    • Tell me about a time you found it necessary to tactfully, but forcefully, say things that others did not want to hear.
    • Tell me about a time when you had to convince your team to do something they didn't want to do. How did you do it?
  • Influencing
    • Tell me about a time when you anticipated a problem and were able to use your influence or persuasiveness to change the direction of the situation positively.
    • Describe a situation in which you were able to use persuasion to successfully convince someone to see/do things your way.
    • Describe a time when you had to influence a number of different people/groups coming from different perspectives to support you in what you wanted or needed to do. What kind of influencing techniques did you use? How were the techniques you used different from one group/person to another?
  • Delegation
    • Tell me about the kinds of work assignments you give to your direct reports. What assignments do you not give to your direct reports?
    • Describe a time you had to delegate parts of a large project or assignment to some of your direct reports. How did you decide what tasks to delegate to which people? What problems occurred?
    • Give me an example of a major project or task you delegated to one of your employees. How did you monitor the project or task?
  • Empowerment
    • Give me a specific example of how you have empowered your staff to make independent decisions.
    • Tell me about a time you encouraged a direct report to make decisions within his area of responsibility that worked out better than you expected.
    • Describe for me a time when you provided your direct reports with the freedom to determine their work process, within the parameters of the task/project, even though you would have preferred that they do it another way.
  • Providing direction
    • Tell me about the process you used to set goals for your department and your direct reports last year.
    • Describe your procedures for keeping track of what is going on in your department.
    • Give me an example of a stretch goal you set for a direct report. Why was this a stretch goal? Was the direct report able to accomplish the goal? What did you do to contribute to her success?
  • Caring about direct reports
    • Tell me what you have done on a consistent basis to ensure that your direct reports feel valued for their contributions?
    • Tell me about a time when you were able to provide a direct report with recognition for the work she performed. What did you do?
    • Describe a time when one of your direct reports was under a great deal of pressure or stress. What did you do in the situation? What was the outcome?
  • Motivation
    • Relate a scenario where you were responsible for motivating others. Were you able to do it? How?
    • Tell me about a time when you were able to give an employee what she needed to maintain or regain her motivation.
    • Give me an example of a time of low morale where you were able to motivate another person or group to achieve something that they weren't really motivated to achieve.
  • Developing direct reports
    • Tell me about a time you coached or mentored someone to a higher level of performance or a higher-level position.
    • Tell me about a specific developmental plan that you created and carried out with one or more of your direct reports who were not performing up to expectations. What were the components of the developmental plan? What was the timeframe? What was the outcome?
    • Tell me about a time you had to provide constructive feedback to an employee who was not meeting performance expectations. Why was the employee not meeting expectations?
  • Managing and measuring work performance
    • Tell me about the methods you use to keep informed of your employees' activities, achievements, progress toward objectives, etc.
    • Give me an example of a time you built a feedback loop into the work you delegated to a direct report.
    • Describe your procedures for evaluating your direct reports.

Management

  • Planning
    • Give me an example of a time you had a lot of tasks put on your plate all at once. How did you decide what tasks to do and when to do them?
    • Give me an example of a time when you were effective in doing away with the "constant emergencies” and “surprises” in your work environment.
    • Give me an example of a change you saw coming and how you planned for that change.
  • Initiative
    • Give me an example of a project or task that you had to accomplish without sufficient information, guidelines, or direction.
    • Describe a significant project idea you initiated in the last year. How did you know it was needed? Was it used? How did it work?
    • Describe a time when you took the initiative to do something that needed to be done, even though it wasn't really your responsibility. What circumstances prompted you to act?
  • Organization
    • Give me an example of a time when you had to juggle several important activities and projects in a limited amount of time. Did you stay on top of all of them? How?
    • Tell me about a time you had to handle multiple responsibilities. How did you organize the work you needed to do?
    • With fax machines, e-mail, and other technology speeding up processes, time seems to be something we are always running low on. Describe some things you have done to organize your work in the past to meet the various time demands.
  • Process management
    • Walk me through a recent project or assignment you completed and tell me the process you used to ensure it was complete and accurate.
    • Tell me about a time when you took a complicated, technical process and explained it to people who were not familiar with the process.
    • Give me an example of a time you saw an opportunity to integrate two or more processes or procedures to make a more efficient and effective single process or procedure.
  • Resource management
    • We all have more on our plate than we have time to get done. Tell me about a time where your ability to accurately scope out time requirements for tasks and projects made you successful.
    • We have all faced situations where the resources we needed to be successful were not within our span of control. Tell me about a project or goal where this was true for you.
    • Tell me about a time where you prepared a budget larger than any you had ever done before. Did you meet the budget? What was the variance? Did the budget need to be altered (if so, how and why)?
  • Negotiation
    • Tell me about a time you needed to get cooperation from someone in another department for you to be successful on a task or project.
    • Describe for me a situation where two individuals or parties were at odds, and you helped negotiate a win-win solution.
    • Give me an example of an approach you used to sell an idea to an employee, peer, or someone higher in management.
  • Political awareness
    • Describe a time when you were able to anticipate a land mine and plan your upcoming actions accordingly.
    • Describe a time when you agreed to implement someone else's idea over your own. How did you approach the situation? How did you feel about it? Was it a successful implementation? Why/why not?
    • Give me an example of a complex political situation you were able to handle effectively and quietly, which, had you not handled it well, could have blown up.
  • Partnering
    • Tell me about a time you got involved in a cross-functional activity simply to develop a better working relationship with those involved in the activity.
    • Describe for me a time when you might have been more successful at something had you taken the time to clarify the expectations in a working relationship.
    • Most things we do have an impact on others whether we realize it or not. Tell me about a time you realized that what you would be working on could have a far-reaching impact, and you sought out relevant/appropriate people to gather their concerns and perspective before you proceed with the task.
  • Comfort around higher management
    • Tell me about a presentation you made to upper management. What was it about? How did you feel about making the presentation? How did it go?
    • Give me an example of a time where, by speaking management's language, you were able to convince them to do something that they might not have done otherwise.
    • Tell me about a time where had you taken time to think about how a higher-level management person or group liked to receive information, you might have been more successful. If you had it to do over again, what would you do differently?
  • Change management
    • Give me an example of a time when you helped a direct report or other person in the organization accept change and make the necessary adjustments to move forward. What were the change/transition skills that you used?
    • Give me an example of a time you had to adjust quickly to changes over which you had no control. What was the impact of the change on you?
    • Give me an example of a time when you missed the early signs of employee resistance to an organizational change.

Innovation

  • Perseverance
    • Describe a time when you were asked to complete a difficult task or project where the odds were against you. Were you successful? What did you learn from the experience?
    • Tell me about a time when you stayed with an idea or project for longer than anyone expected you to.
    • Tell me about a time when you had to finish a job even though everyone else had given up.
  • Perspective
    • Describe a time for me when you were able to solve a business problem or challenge by applying something that you learned through a personal or business interest of yours.
    • Give me an example of a time where you were able to pose a variety of future scenarios to ensure that the proper course of action was taken.
    • Tell me about a time where your ability to think strategically, or look at the big picture stopped you or someone else from doing something that would have been a mistake.
  • Systems management
    • Tell me about a system you designed or improved. Why did you do it? What benefit resulted? Who was impacted by the design/improvement? How did they react?
    • Give me an example of a time when you picked up on a business or industry trend or change and made appropriate changes within your company/department/team to respond to or take advantage of the opportunity.
    • Tell me about a time where your understanding of a (social/organizational/technological) system helped you be more successful than you would have been otherwise.
  • Systems thinking
    • Give me an example of a time you solved a problem in ways that addressed total system needs rather than just your immediate situation.
    • Give me an example when your ability to look at problems and issues from a big picture approach served you well.
    • Describe for me a time when your ability to find relationships between things inside and/or outside the organization helped you be more effective.
  • Technology management
    • Describe a time when you applied a new piece of technology to an existing task or project. What benefits resulted from the technological application? How did you determine there would be a benefit?
    • Tell me about a time you applied technology to improve a service, process, or productivity.
    • Give me an example of a time when you were responsible for selecting a new or improved technology.
  • Organizational agility
    • Give me an example of a time when your ability to read an organization's culture enabled you to be successful at something.
    • Describe a time where your ability to understand an organization's culture helped you develop the relationships and partnerships you needed to accomplish something that had to be done.
    • Tell me about a time you were able to accomplish something that was important to you through the use of your informal network.
  • Strategic planning
    • Give me an example of a strategy you developed to achieve a long- or short-term business need, goal, or objective.
    • Tell me about a time where your ability to keep your eyes on the future proved to be a benefit to your organization/department/team.
    • Tell me about a time when your industry knowledge alerted you to an upcoming challenge or opportunity, and where you were able to develop a proactive strategy to deal with it.
  • Vision
    • Describe a time you established a vision for your department/unit. What process was used? Were others involved in setting the vision and, if so, how? How did the vision contribute to the functioning of the department/unit?
    • Tell me about a time when you anticipated the future and made changes to meet these future needs. Did the anticipated future occur?
    • Tell me about a time where your vision of the future was so inspiring that you were able to convert nay-sayers into followers.

Annex: Online language schools

An overview of online language learning websites.